This Year in HISTORY: 2015

This Year in HISTORY: 2015


Seventy years after the end of World War II, we commemorated the Allies’ final push to Berlin and the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa, explored Mussolini’s final hours, looked back at how the world celebrated V-E Day, met a Japanese engineer who survived two atomic bombs, and found out how physics helped solve the mystery of one of history’s most famous kisses.


This was a busy year for Egyptologists, with news of the discovery of two ancient burial sites, and the revelation that Queen Nefertiti may be buried behind a secret door in King Tut’s tomb. We also took a look inside Egypt’s famed animal mummies, explored the unusual history of a 4,000-year old manuscript, and learned some surprising facts about Cleopatra. Not all was well in in the land of the pharaohs, however, thanks to the accidental damage caused to King Tut’s legendary mask, and the discovery that the “Meidum Geese,” a painting known as the “Mona Lisa” of Ancient Egypt, is likely a fake.


What were some of 2015’s most bizarre discoveries? How about the mummified monk found inside an ancient Buddha statue? Or the 17th-century “war camel” discovered in an Austrian cellar? And then there was the medieval remedy being used to kill a modern superbug. And the bizarre hybrid animal remains found in an Iron Age grave in Britain. And we were fascinated by the CT scan that revealed the body of a baby buried at the feet of a mummified Swedish bishop? This year really had it all.


Vikings, Vikings and more Vikings! Among the Norse-inspired news this year was the construction of a new Viking temple in Iceland, the accidental find of a 1,200-year-old Viking sword by a Norwegian hiker, the 9th-century grave that shed light on a unique link between Vikings and the Islamic world and the December discovery of a hoard of 1,100-year-old coins and Viking jewelry that could rewrite English history.


In 2015, we were in awe of the 8-year-old boy with dreams of becoming a real-life Indian Jones who uncovered a 3,000-year-old relic, and the teenaged girl who proved historical scholarship isn’t solely the realm of tweedy academics. And we can thank serendipity for its role in some of the year’s most unlikely finds, including a treasure trove of letters that have remained unopened for more than 300 years, the prehistoric wooly mammoth bones unearthed by a Michigan farmer, the medieval skeleton that rose from a grave thanks to a violent storm, and the construction worker’s discovery of a mass grave for victims of the 1918 flu pandemic. A tip of the HISTORY hat to all!


A decade after Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast, we caught up with several of the survivors featured in our exclusive video series, “I Was There: Hurricane Katrina,” and asked them to reflect on the changes they’ve seen in the past 10 years, and the importance of rebuilding New Orleans and the Gulf Coast in the aftermath of Katrina’s destruction.


America’s colonial history was big news this year. In January, one of the nation’s oldest time capsules was opened, revealing artifacts originally planted by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere in 1795, and this summer saw the discovery of new clues to long-lingering mysteries surrounding Jamestown and the “lost colony” of Roanoke. We explored the real-life haunts of the Sons of Liberty, drank up the sudsy story of Samuel Adams’ career in the beer business, got the scoop on the lives of Revolutionary leaders such as John Adams, Joseph Warren and the Marquis de Lafayette, and brushed up on some Revolutionary war facts and figures.


This was also the year we learned the saucy stories behind famous films the censors tried to kill, explored the life of Hollywood’s forgotten first movie star—and the death of one of its legends, found out what happened the day Dylan went electric and when Disneyland had a disastrous opening day, discovered the real history that inspired “Star Wars and the true story of the “Sound of Music”, checked out surprising facts about the “Peanuts comic strip and the “Wizard of Oz”, and untangled the bizarre legal history of one of the world’s most famous songs.


As the sesquicentennial of the end of the American Civil War and the Lincoln Assassination approached, we retraced the war’s final days with a look back at the civilian who had a front row seat to some of the conflict’s most dramatic moments, explored six battles that were fought after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, got the story behind the tragic maritime disaster that claimed the lives of the war’s veterans and found out why the Confederate’s final surrender happened in the most unlikely of places. We checked out 10 surprising facts about the Lincoln assassination, learned what Abraham Lincoln said in his final speech, found out more about the the other targets of Booth’s conspiracy, went inside the hunt for Lincoln’s killer, found out who received the reward offered up for Booth’s capture and even explored the bizarre story of the John Wilkes Booth “mummy” that toured America.


We shed some light on the surprising history of some favorite holiday traditions, including the origins of Oktoberfest and Black Friday, the Puritan’s colonial-era ban on Christmas, why we leave out cookies and milk for Santa Claus and whether or not the first Thanksgiving was actually held in Florida. And we wrapped up the year with a look back at Christmas through the decades, remembering the 1968 Apollo 8 Christmas Eve broadcast, and exploring the history of some of the holiday’s most popular toys.

View and delete browser history in Microsoft Edge

Note: This article is for the new Microsoft Edge . Get help for the legacy version of Microsoft Edge.

With your permission, the new Microsoft Edge can remember information for you, making it easier to return to a favorite site or fill in forms. Microsoft Edge stores your browsing data, such as your passwords, info you've entered in forms, sites you've visited, and other information. Other browsing modes such as InPrivate browsing and Guest mode function differently and store less data than normal browsing.

Your browsing data is stored on your device. If you've turned on sync, those data types can also be stored in the Microsoft cloud to be synced across your signed in versions of Microsoft Edge.

You can see and clear your browsing history by selecting Settings and more > History > Manage history. You may choose to clear your browsing history at any time.

“History” was written by members Liam Payne and Louis Tomlinson, along with Wayne Hector, Ed Drewett and the band's regular collaborators Julian Bunetta and John Ryan. It is a jaunty acoustic singalong that closes the album's standard edition [2] and was composed in G-flat major with a tempo of 88 beats per minute and a time signature of 12
8 . [3]

The song was chosen as the third and final single from Made in the A.M. after the commercial success that followed the band's performance on the finale of British The X Factor. The song was released by Syco Music on 6 November 2015 and served as the band's last single before their hiatus. [4] [5]

The music video was published on the band's Vevo channel on YouTube on 26 January 2016. [6] The video features clips of the band throughout the years, highlighting their tours and personal anecdotes (including clips with former member Zayn Malik). The video ends as the band walk off in separate directions. It was later confirmed that the band were originally supposed to run back together at the end of the music video. Ben Winston, who directed the video, also added "The ending wasn't supposed to look like they're just walking off in different directions, it was kind of like a 'see you in a bit, guys.'" [7] In 2017, the deleted clip was unveiled online. [8] History was the last song before their hiatus. To date, History has garnered just over 402 million views on YouTube.

Madeline Roth of MTV News commented that "littered with hand claps and campfire singalong vibes, “History” is both nostalgic and forward-looking at the same time" and that "the song is "the perfect goodbye to their fans". [9] Brennan Carley, writing with Spin, wrote that "utilizing hand claps, acoustic guitar, and Harry Styles’ sweet, standout harmonizing, the song’s proof that each of the remaining four 1D singers will be just fine on their own". [10] Brittany Spanos of Rolling Stone wrote that the group went "rootsy" with the song while adding that "the quartet harmonize above acoustic guitars and hand claps" and that "the boy band’s latest veers sharply from the more anthemic, arena rock sounds of their most recent singles". [11] Lucy Wang, writing for Time, wrote that the song is a "crooning, bittersweet anthem" and "a celebration of the British boy band’s five-year journey alongside its fans". [12]

Weekly charts Edit

Chart (2015–16) Peak
Australia (ARIA) [13] 25
Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40) [14] 17
Belgium (Ultratop 50 Flanders) [15] 44
Belgium (Ultratip Wallonia) [16] 13
Canada (Canadian Hot 100) [17] 46
France (SNEP) [18] 54
Germany (Official German Charts) [19] 77
Ireland (IRMA) [20] 8
Italy (FIMI) [21] 7
Netherlands (Single Top 100) [22] 72
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ) [23] 14
Portugal (AFP) [24] 88
Scotland (OCC) [25] 3
Spain (PROMUSICAE) [26] 31
Sweden (Sverigetopplistan) [27] 63
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade) [28] 52
UK Singles (OCC) [29] 6
US Billboard Hot 100 [30] 65
US Mainstream Top 40 (Billboard) [31] 33

Year-end charts Edit

Certifications Edit

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Adobe Acrobat and Reader

  • Acrobat Reader priced originally at $50 per user. [1]
  • Acrobat Catalog, which creates searchable indexes for PDF files
  • Adobe also released the first Acrobat Plug-ins SDK allowing third-party developers to create plug-in programs for the Acrobat Exchange application.
  • Support for PDF version 1.3
  • Support for PDF version 1.4

Adobe Acrobat Reader was renamed Adobe Reader.

Version 6 was criticized for its performance. Adobe Acrobat 6 is slow to load and use. The Acrobat 6 plug-ins for web browsers were also criticized for suffering from bad performance and potentially rendering one's web browser non-responsive. [2]

Last version to support Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows 2000 Service Packs 2 and 3 and Windows XP without a service pack.

First version to include a mandatory product activation.

For Acrobat 7, Adobe released editions of Adobe Reader for Linux, Solaris (SPARC only), HP-UX and IBM AIX.

  • Support for PDF version 1.6
  • Support for Adobe Policy Server rights management
  • Support for embedded 3D object information from the .u3d Universal 3D format

Adobe Acrobat 7 Professional for Windows now included Adobe LiveCycle Designer 7.0. Adobe Elements 7.0 was also released which was still only sold by volume licensing outlets but decreased the minimum licenses limit to 100 licenses. Finally, another edition of Adobe Acrobat, Acrobat 3D, was added to the set.

Adobe Acrobat 3D included all of the functionality of Acrobat Professional 7.0 as well as updated assistance for embedded 3D computer graphics, tools for capturing 3D content from OpenGL applications, and the Adobe Acrobat 3D Toolkit for converting CAD documents to PDF objects. Also included is a version of the capture tool for installation on Unix systems.

Last version to support Windows NT 4.0 Service Packs 6 and 6a, though with limited feature support.

A later update 8.1 in June 2007 was released in order to be compatible with Microsoft Office 2007, Windows Vista, and 64-bit Windows operating systems. [4] Also during September 2007, Adobe Reader 8.1.1 released for Linux and Solaris (SPARC) users.

The Adobe Acrobat 8 set had a few changes. Acrobat 3D was now able to produce embedded PRC file format, a very compressed format for geometry and graphics which requires Reader 8.1 to display. It also supported Product Manufacturing Information and many different CAD formats.

Acrobat Connect Professional (formerly Macromedia Breeze) was also added to the set. It allowed scalable interactive web conferencing and multiple personal meeting rooms for everyone part of an enterprise.

The Mac OS X version of Adobe Acrobat Pro was improved significantly: Adobe Acrobat for Macintosh was made a Universal binary that operated on both PPC and Intel architectures.

8.x product support ended in November 2011. [5]

  • Support for PDF version 1.7
  • Acrobat 8 Elements, which was withdrawn before its expected release during mid-2007 [6]
  • Acrobat Connect (formerly Macromedia Breeze), a support application with online personal meeting rooms to collaborate in real time with as many as 15 participants

Adobe Acrobat 9.0 was released. Support for version 9 ended June 26, 2013, [9] with the last available update being 9.5.5.

Adobe Reader 9 ends compatibility with Adobe Reader Extensions 5 and 6 which permit Adobe Reader client software to save changes to filled-in forms in PDFs. Adobe Reader Extensions 6.1 and newer are still usable. Legacy PDFs will still be viewable, however they will open with the warning "This document enables Reader capabilities that are no longer enabled in this Reader version." [10]

The Adobe Acrobat 9 set also omitted the multiple document interface. Previous versions of Adobe Acrobat activated multiple PDF files in the same window (except for version 8 where MDI was only an alternative option and the default mode SDI). Acrobat 9 however, only uses the single document interface scheme, wherein each PDF file is activated in an instance of Adobe Acrobat. [11] Adobe Acrobat 9 is the last version to support Windows 2000 and PowerPC-based Macintosh PCs.

  • Support for PDF version 1.7
  • Support for Adobe extensions for PDF 1.7
  • The ability to create Acrobat forms was in Acrobat Standard, which was previously only available with Acrobat Professional 6, 7 and 8
  • Support for real-time collaboration on PDF files with synchronized document views and chat
  • Improved Web Capture for copying entire web pages or just some parts into PDF
  • Integration with to enable storage and sharing of PDF files
  • Support for comparing and highlighting the differences between two versions of a PDF document
  • Support for playback of Flash Video or H.264 video in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader
  • Support for conversion of a variety of [which?] video formats to Flash Video for playback inside PDF
  • Support for creating PDF maps by importing geospatial files that retain metadata and coordinates
  • Support for Optical character recognition (OCR) on PDF files using ClearScan. Adobe ClearScan technology creates and embeds custom Type1-CID fonts to match the visual appearance of a scanned document after optical character recognition. ClearScan uses these newly created custom fonts instead of system fonts or Type1-MM

The Adobe Acrobat 9 set includes a new program: Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro Extended for Microsoft Windows. This product includes Adobe Presenter as well as the features of Acrobat 3D.

Support by Adobe ended November 15, 2015. Version 10 introduced Protected Mode, a sandbox that employed features and techniques previously in use by Google Chrome and Microsoft Office 2010 to help mitigate or prevent potentially malicious content from affecting users' files or settings in Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. [14] In Windows Vista and later versions, Protected Mode is implemented as a low integrity process to further restrict the sandbox, and User Interface Privilege Isolation is used to thwart keystroke logging processes that operate at a higher integrity level. [15]

Adobe Reader X is available for Windows, Mac OS, Android, and iOS. [16] [17] [18] [19] Compatibility with Linux is not planned. [20]

Support by Adobe ended October 15, 2017. The graphical user interface for desktop systems is carried over from version 10. Adobe Acrobat XI is available for Windows XP, Windows 7 and Windows 8. It is also available for Mac OS X Snow Leopard or later. [18] Adobe Acrobat XI is the final version of Adobe Acrobat to support Windows XP, Windows Vista (unofficially bypassing installation, version X is the last officially-supported version [22] ) and OS X versions 10.6-10.8.

Some new features include a completely redesigned PDF editing experience, exporting PDF files to Microsoft PowerPoint, touch-friendly capabilities for mobile devices, and integrated cloud services. LiveCycle Designer is no longer bundled (but remains a standalone product). Acrobat XI was released to the market on October 15, 2012.

Support by Adobe ended April 7, 2020. [24] The UI in this version has changed dramatically since version XI. Adobe Acrobat DC is available for Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 or later. It is also available for Mac OS X 10.9 or later. Beginning in this version, version numbers are now labeled by year of release, not by the number of the release. As such, this has version number "15" instead of "12". Also, Adobe Acrobat DC is split into two tracks, continuous and classic. The classic track has updates released quarterly and does not provide new features in updates, whereas the continuous track has updates issued more frequently with updates performed silently and automatically. [25]

  • Reader returns to the "Adobe Acrobat Reader" name.
  • There is a heavy focus on the Adobe Document Cloud feature. "DC" is now appended to the product name for both tracks (notwithstanding the classic track's default installation folder being Acrobat 2015 with only the continuous track's being Acrobat DC).
  • The multiple document interface is added back (with release 2015.009 of the continuous track), but with a tabbed interface instead of the original windowed interface. [26]

Acrobat2017_MUI (06-06-17) is the base, [27] for major releases on the classic track of this standalone version, if you intend to upgrade or buy Acrobat outright via a traditional perpetual license. This license allows the user to install the software and use it. Product support expires on 6/6/2022. Perpetual customers will get the regular product fixes and platform support enhancements, but don't receive future new features or upgrades. Standalone product users also don't have access to all the Acrobat DC web, mobile, and cloud-based workflows. Acrobat Standard 2017 is not available on macOS. This software will not operate without activation. Internet connection and registration are required for software activation, validation of subscriptions, and access to online services. Phone activation is not available. [28]

System requirement: macOS v10.12.

Acrobat2020_MUI (01-06-20) is the base, [27] for major releases on the classic track of this standalone version, if you intend to upgrade or buy Acrobat outright via a traditional perpetual license. This license allows the user to install the software and use it. Perpetual customers will get the regular product fixes and platform support enhancements, but don't receive future new features or upgrades. Standalone product users also don't have access to all the Acrobat DC web, mobile, and cloud-based workflows. Acrobat Standard 2020 is not available on macOS. This software will not operate without activation. Internet connection and registration are required for software activation, validation of subscriptions, and access to online services. Phone activation is not available. [29]

System requirement: macOS v10.13.

  • Acrobat 2020 is the latest perpetual desktop version of Acrobat.
  • Acrobat DC is the latest subscription version of Acrobat.

1.0 Edit

Originally called Adobe Reader For Windows Tablets (Version 1.0) was released on the Microsoft Windows Store on the second week of December 2012, [30] based on the Adobe Reader Mobile engine found in the iOS, Android, Blackberry and Windows phone versions, is the first application written by Adobe Systems for the Windows 8/RT Metro Style interface. The current versions offers only basic PDF reading features, subsequent patches will bring more complex features to catch up with the more feature complete iOS and Android versions. Adobe Reader for Windows Tablets supports both ARM and Intel x86/x86_64 architectures and can be used both via touch and more classic keyboard+mouse combination. The main features are:

  • Windows 8 Native App and UI
  • Semantic Zoom to jump between pages
  • Bookmarks and search feature
  • Opening password protected PDF
  • Select and Copy text

On February 1, 2013, Adobe Reader for Windows Tablet has been officially renamed to Adobe Reader Touch to tell Hybrid Desktop Windows 8 Users which version of Adobe Reader may have (Modern UI or Desktop Version). [31] Name change apart, the changes include:

  • Easier Document Navigation With Mouse and Keyboard ([+] and [-] Zoom Buttons)
  • View Sticky Notes

1.1 Edit

Version 1.1 was released on April 11, 2013. The changes include:

1.2 Edit

Version 1.2 was released on June 27, 2013. This update adds:

  • Go To Page for quicker navigation
  • Notes to your document
  • Highlight, Strikeout and Underline with Selection and Markup Tool to text
  • View Notes attached to text markup
  • Save and Save As functionality

1.3 Edit

  • Fill and Save PDF Forms
  • Change Color of Highlight, Underline and Strikeout text markups

3.1 Edit

10.0 Edit

The first Android edition of Adobe Reader X was released to the Android Market (now Google Play Store) on November 18, 2010. [32] Main features include:

  • Text Search
  • Password Protected Documents
  • Quick Jump Between Pages In Documents
  • Sharing A Document
  • Fit-To-Screen Viewing Mode
  • PDF Portfolios
  • Performance & Security Enhancements

10.1 Edit

Version 10.1 was released on October 9, 2011 with added support for Android Tablets, [33] The new features include:

  • Tablet-friendly UI
  • Navigation using Bookmarks
  • Text selection copy
  • View comments
  • Faster document open time and flips
  • Smoother Pinch-Zoom experience
  • Visibly less "white" as you navigate the document
  • Intermediate rendering feedback for complex documents
  • Support for viewing PDFs protected with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management
  • Higher Quality image rendering

10.5 Edit

Version 10.5 was released on the Google Play Store the 6 March 2013, [34] this major update brings many new features and improvements to Reader For Android:

  • Go to Page
  • Smart Zoom
  • Screen Brightness Lock
  • Undo In Freehand Annotation
  • Sync last position on
  • Forms Central PDF Validation
  • Google Cloud Print
  • "Back" after clicking an internal link or bookmark

11.1 Edit

  • Ability to Purchase Adobe PDF Pack and Adobe ExportPDF Services directly from Adobe Reader
  • Conversion of Documents and Images in PDF with Adobe PDF Pack
  • Export PDF File in Word or Excel format with Adobe ExportPDF
  • New and improved search experience
  • Online Help
  • New and improved UI with MultiWindow support

11.2 Edit

  • Support for user-added bookmarks
  • Read out loud and UI navigation with accessibility mode
  • Telephone hyperlinks for automatic dialing from within PDF
  • Enhanced UI in document view
  • Two page viewing mode for tablets

10.1 Edit

On October 9, 2011, Adobe Systems Inc. released a port of Adobe Reader X (10.1) for the Apple iOS devices, featuring an optimized UI for both for the iPhone/iPod Touch and the iPad. [35] The iOS port was at feature parity with the Android version 10.1, the main features are:

  • Text Search
  • Password Protected Documents
  • Sharing documents with the "Open With. " command
  • Tablet friendly UI
  • Navigation using Bookmarks
  • Text selection copy
  • Print via AirPrint Framework
  • View Comments
  • Faster document open time and flips
  • Smoother Pinch-Zoom experience
  • Visibly less "white" as you navigate the document
  • Intermediate rendering feedback for complex documents
  • Support for viewing PDFs protected with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management
  • Higher Quality image rendering
  • Security and stability Improvements

10.5 Edit

Version 10.5 was released on the Apple Store the 9 March 2013, [36] this major update brings many new features and improvements to Reader For iOS:

  • Go to Page
  • Night Mode
  • Smart Zoom
  • Screen Brightness Lock
  • Undo In Freehand Annotation
  • Sync last position on
  • Forms Central PDF Validation
  • VoiceOver Support for Accessibility
  • Bluetooth Keyboard Support for Form-Field Navigation

10.6 Edit

  • Enhanced integration with
  • Options to flatten when Sharing files
  • View notes attached to text markup
  • Updated iPhone UI
  • Delete and Rename files in

11 Edit

  • Ability to buy Adobe CreatePDF service using In app purchase
  • Convert an image to PDF using Adobe's CreatePDF service
  • Create PDF files from a variety of file formats using CreatePDF service
  • Ability to buy Adobe ExportPDF service using in app purchase
  • Export PDF files to various formats (Word, excel, etc..) for editing using ExportPDF service

11.2 Edit

  • Updated UI to be iOS7 native
  • Updated recent documents UI
  • Improved file management
  • Integrated help
  • Improved accuracy of text selection
  • Added monthly option for PDF Pack Subscription
  • Upgraded navigation
  • Fixed crashes

15.0.0 Edit

Adobe Reader is now Adobe Acrobat DC. Version 15.0.0 was released on April 7, 2015, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. [37] The new features include:

  • Easily accomplish frequent tasks from the new Tools menu
  • View recent files across computers and devices with Mobile Link
  • Use free Adobe Fill & Sign to fill, sign, and send forms on your iPad
  • Edit text on your iPad with font matching, sizing, colors, and more
  • Organize pages: reorder, rotate, and delete pages in PDF files
  • Undo and redo changes including highlights, comments, and text edits
  • Open files stored in your Creative Cloud account
  • Sign in with support for Enterprise IDs

15.0.1 Edit

Version 15.0.1 was released on April 18, 2015, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. [38] The new features include:

  • Easily access free annotation tools! Select “Comment” from the Tool Switcher
  • Find files faster. File list now defaults to Local Files
  • Bug fixes

15.0.2 Edit

Version 15.0.2 was released on April 24, 2015, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. The new features include:

  • Tap on My Documents to easily find files
  • Access free commenting tools from the Viewer
  • Enjoy performance improvements for large files
  • Bug fixes

15.2 Edit

Version 15.2 was released on November 13, 2015, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. The new features include:

  • Integration with Dropbox to open and save files. Connect your Dropbox account to Acrobat Reader to:
    • Browse and open your Dropbox files
    • Annotate, edit and sign PDF files
    • Save changes back to Dropbox

    15.3 Edit

    Version 15.3 was released on January 5, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. The new features include:

    • Sign PDFs using the new e-signature panel:
      • Capture your handwritten signature via camera
      • Save your e-signature to use each time you sign
      • Automatically sync your e-signature to use with Adobe Acrobat Pro, Standard, or Reader on desktop
      • Bugs that caused lost comments and annotations
      • Crashes and improved stability

      15.4 Edit

      Version 15.4 was released on January 23, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. [39] The new features include:

      • Improved reading experience for PDFs with bookmarks
      • Changed bookmark destinations to ignore zoom settings
      • Fixed:
        • Intermittent crashes
        • Crashes when opening certain documents
        • Bug in PDF rendering where content was not visible

        16.02.23 Edit

        Version 16.02.23 was released on February 17, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. [40] The new features include:

        • Optimized for iPad Pro: View, annotate and sign documents on iPad Pro's expansive display.
        • Added support for iOS 9 Split View and Slide Over: Multitask with two apps open side by side.
        • Expanded support for Dropbox: Save files directly to Dropbox with the new “Save to…” menu item.
        • Decreased app file size.
        • Fixed:
          • Drawing performance with Apple Pencil.
          • Intermittent VoiceOver crashes.
          • Issue when viewing documents containing some Asian fonts.
          • Sporadic crashes when editing documents.

          16.03.15 Edit

          Version 16.03.15 was released on March 10, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. Features include: [41]

          • Expanded support for Dropbox: Use Create PDF and Export PDF on files stored in Dropbox. (Subscription required.)
          • Improved performance when tapping on form fields and comments in certain PDFs.

          16.04.05 Edit

          Version 16.04.05 was released on March 30, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. Features include:

          • Ability to remove individual items from Recent files list.
          • Improved palm rejection to remove marks from resting your palm on the screen when using Apple Pencil with iPad Pro.
          • Fixed:
            • Issue with applying image-based signatures.
            • Ability to share files with names containing certain symbols.
            • Bug causing users to be unexpectedly signed out of Adobe Document Cloud.
            • Improved stability.

            16.05.17 Edit

            Version 16.05.17 was released on May 4, 2016, supporting iOS 8.0 and above. [42] The new features include:

            • Fixed:
              • Slow scrolling of file listings on iOS 9.3 and above.
              • Bug preventing some edits to be saved to PDF.
              • Ability to move, rename, and delete the correct file in filtered lists.

              16.06.28 Edit

              Version 16.06.28 was released on June 16, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. The new features include:

              • Reflow text and images using Reading Mode:
                • Display text in an easy-to-read format for smaller devices.
                • Pinch or double-tap to change text size.

                16.08.09 Edit

                Version 16.08.09 was released on August 9, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. The new features include:

                • Connect to storage providers with More Locations: Select, open, and save documents stored in iCloud Drive and other document storage providers like Box, Microsoft OneDrive, and Google Drive.
                • Bug fixes.

                16.09.20 Edit

                Version 16.09.20 was released on September 16, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. The new features include:

                • Quickly find PDFs directly from the Home screen using Spotlight Search. Touch your finger to the screen and drag down to get started.
                • Compatible with iOS 10.
                • Bug fixes.

                16.11.01 Edit

                Version 16.11.01 was released on October 26, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. [43] The new features include:

                • View opened PDF filenames in the top bar.
                • Fixed:
                  • Issue with printing PDFs with form fields and comments.
                  • Ability to open files from search results.

                  16.11.22 Edit

                  Version 16.11.22 was released on November 17, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. [44] The new features include:

                  • Scan anything with your device camera:
                    • Snap a photo of a document, whiteboard, form, picture, receipt, or note and save it as a PDF.
                    • Scan multiple document pages into a single PDF and reorder as desired.
                    • Save and share scanned PDFs.
                    • Enhance your camera images with improved boundary detection, perspective correction, and text sharpness.
                    • Requires iPhone 5s+, iPad 3+, iPad Mini 2+, and iOS 9+.

                    16.12.13 Edit

                    Version 16.12.13 was published on December 7, 2016, supporting iOS 9.0 and above. [44] The new features include:

                    • Enjoy improved performance with text markup tools.
                    • Easily fill and sign any form on your IPhone by connecting to the free Adobe Fill & Sign app from the Tool Switcher.
                    • Bug fixes.

                    20.013.20074 Edit

                    Adobe Acrobat Pro DC Version 20.013.20074 is the most current version for free download as of 09 Dec 2020.

                    Charted: The tallest buildings in the world for any year in history

                    Architecture tells us a lot about economic history, as these charts by Martin Vargic show.

                    Vargic, a Slovakian artist and designer who runs the blog, created six charts that document the history of the tallest buildings on six continents -- Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania -- over the last 5,000 years

                    The charts show the silhouettes of the tallest buildings on the continents through history, running from ancient history on the left to modern times on the right. The labels give the building's name, the year it was built or the years during which it was the continent's (not the world's) tallest building, and its height. (There are several different ways of measuring building height. Vargic uses height to tip, so the list may look a little different than other lists of the world's tallest buildings.)

                    Here is Europe (click to see a larger version of the image):

                    The buildings in red held the record for the world’s tallest building by pinnacle at least once. Vargic also includes many monuments and towers in this chart, which do not qualify to win the record as the world's tallest building.

                    The John Hancock Building, 1 WTC and Willis Tower were engaged in an antennae arms race for several decades, which kept them at the top of list when measuring a building to tip. Though the Petronas Towers, the Taipei 101 and other buildings surpassed the Willis (Sears) Tower in terms of height to architectural elements, roof and highest occupied floor, the Willis Tower was still measured as the world's tallest building by antennae until the Burj Khalifa was built.

                    If you follow the buildings in red, you can see a reflection of the world's economic history. While Europe was home to the world’s tallest building from 1240 to 1890, the 20th Century was one of American skyscrapers. The Burj Khalifa in Dubai took over the world record in 2010, perhaps inaugurating the start of an Asian century.

                    All of the buildings that Vargic marks as having held the record as the world’s tallest are in Europe, North America and Asia, except for the Lighthouse of Alexandria. This ancient structure, which measured 450 feet, held the record between 280 BCE and 1323 AD and is visible in Vargic's chart of Africa:

                    Dow Jones Industrial Average (^DJI)

                    Stocks set fresh record highs on Friday, with traders hoping that a bipartisan infrastructure deal would help further stoke economic activity. David Ragland, IRC Wealth CEO and Jay Jacobs, SVP and Head of Research & Strategy at Global X ETFs joined Yahoo Finance Live to discuss.

                    Place A Bag On Your Car Mirror When Traveling

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                    Boston Fed's Rosengren: Temporary inflationary pressures to continue ɺ little longer' than expected

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                    Core inflation clocks in at highest rate since 1992

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                    Dow Jones Futures: A Market Rally 'New Normal?' Amazon, Shopify Near Buys Analyzing Tesla Vs. Nio

                    The market rally is heating up as volatility calms down. Amazon leads three top techs near buy points. Tesla and Nio are on the move.

                    Mom's Payback - She Bought Neighbor's Property

                    After so much drama and many police visits, she got the upper hand. Who would’ve thought that a small piece of paper has such power?

                    This Little-Known Way to Profit From Short Sellers Is Worth Exploring

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                    S&P 500 books best week since February as investors digest fresh inflation data

                    The Dow and S&P 500 end higher Friday, as investors pore over fresh economic data on inflation and a $1 trillion infrastructure package, credited with helping to lift broader markets to all-time highs.

                    Dow Jones Rallies After Nike Earnings Beat Nasdaq Trades Near Break-Even

                    The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose in today's market, boosted in part by positive earnings from Nike, which also scored a breakout.

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                    US STOCKS-Nike and banks lift S&P 500 to record high close

                    The S&P 500 ended the week at record high on Friday, lifted by Nike and several banks, while weaker-than-expected inflation data eased worries about a sudden tapering in stimulus by the Federal Reserve. Nike Inc surged 15.5% to an all-time high after the sneaker maker forecast fiscal full-year sales ahead of Wall Street estimates, helping the Dow lead among the three main indexes.

                    Stocks end mostly higher as S&P 500 sets record, sees strongest weekly gain since February

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                    The Sky's the Limit for Friday's 2 Hottest Stock Market Winners

                    The stock market continued to ride its positive momentum on Friday, closing an extremely strong week for Wall Street. A couple of stories made investors feel more confident about the overall economy and the prospects for innovative companies. Meanwhile, Virgin Galactic Holdings (NYSE: SPCE) made a key announcement that will pave the way toward making good on its literally skyrocketing potential.

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                    5 Dow Jones Stocks To Buy And Watch In June 2021: Nike Surges 15% On Earnings

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                    Dow Jones Rallies As Nike Surges 15% On Earnings Tesla Stock Reverses Lower

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                    US STOCKS-Nike, bank stocks push S&P 500 to new highs as inflation fear calms

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                    GLOBAL MARKETS-Global stocks rise on U.S. infrastructure deal, inflation data

                    Global stock markets moved higher on Friday after Thursday's breakthrough in Washington talks to secure a bipartisan infrastructure deal, while oil prices headed toward a fifth consecutive weekly gain on hopes for demand growth. Investors have been looking to an infrastructure agreement to extend the U.S. recovery after massive fiscal stimulus helped the economy grow at a 6.4% annualized rate in the first quarter. Getting bipartisan agreement on the infrastructure deal required President Joe Biden to sacrifice some of his ambitions on schools, climate change mitigation and support for parents and caregivers, as well as tax increases on the rich and corporations.

                    U.S. consumer sentiment in June falls short of expectations, though inflation fears moderate

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                    List of Speakers of the House

                    1 Resigned from the House of Representatives on January 19, 1814.

                    2 Elected Speaker on January 19, 1814, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Henry Clay.

                    3 Resigned as Speaker of the House of Representatives on October 28, 1820.

                    4 Elected Speaker on November 15, 1820, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Henry Clay.

                    5 Resigned from the House of Representatives on March 6, 1825, to serve as Secretary of State in the presidential administration of John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts.

                    6 Resigned from the House of Representatives on June 2, 1834.

                    7 Elected Speaker on June 2, 1834, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Andrew Stevenson.

                    8 Was not a candidate for renomination to the House of Representatives in 1868, having become the Republican nominee for Vice President and successfully elected to that office.

                    9 Elected Speaker on March 3, 1869, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker Schuyler Colfax, and served one day.

                    10 Died in office, August 19, 1876.

                    11 Elected Speaker on December 4, 1876, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Michael Kerr.

                    12 Died in office, August 19, 1934.

                    13 Died in office, June 4, 1936.

                    14 Elected Speaker on June 4, 1936, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph Byrns.

                    15 Died in office, September 15, 1940.

                    16 Elected Speaker on September 16, 1940, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker William Bankhead.

                    17 Died in office, November 16, 1961.

                    18 Elected Speaker on January 10, 1962, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Samuel Rayburn.

                    19 Resigned as Speaker of the House of Representatives on June 6, 1989.

                    20 Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker James Wright, Jr.

                    21 John Boehner resigned as Speaker of the House on October 29, 2015.

                    22 Paul D. Ryan was elected Speaker on October 29, 2015, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Speaker John Boehner.

                    When Was MySpace Created?

                    Of the original batch of social networking sites, MySpace was perhaps the most popular and influential. Launched on August 1, 2003, MySpace quickly became the largest social media site in the world, connecting millions of active users all over the world. It started as a file storage platform, but it quickly transitioned to an online social network, which contributed to its meteoric rise in popularity.

                    By 2005, it was clear to the world that MySpace was here to stay, so some larger companies began to show interest in acquiring it. This resulted in the sale of MySpace to News Corp., the U.K-based media conglomerate run by Rupert Murdoch, for $580 million. Shortly thereafter, in 2006, MySpace surpassed Google as the top visited website in world.

                    The Decline of MySpace

                    After the sale, MySpace continued to grow, and by 2009 it was generating around $800 million in revenue, making it one of the more profitable social networking sites out there. However, as Facebook began to expand beyond its initial audience of just college students, MySpace began to decline, and Facebook replaced it as the top visited site in 2008.

                    Another reason MySpace began to decline was its use of on-site ads to generate revenue. Many argue that its deal with Google 2010, which consisted of a $900 million, three-year advertising agreement, overloaded the site with ads and made it difficult to use. It’s popularity was soon eclipsed by other sites like YouTube and Facebook that offered a more ad-free environment.

                    However, MySpace, despite its decline, continues to operate to this day. In 2016, it was bought out by Time Inc., and in 2018 it was bought again by the Meredith Corporation. Currently, it’s still ranked 4,153 on the Alexa ranking of most visited sites in the world.

                    History of Changes in the Earth's Temperature

                    The global temperature values come from data collected around the world that were rolled together to calculate an average for the entire planet. What the global numbers don't show is that temperatures have changed at different rates in different parts of the world. On a large scale, the amount of change depends upon whether a site is located on land or at sea, in the northern or southern hemisphere, and at a pole or the equator.

                    Air over land has historically warmed faster than the oceans. With water covering over 70% of the planet, sea surface temperatures dominate the global average.

                    The Northern Hemisphere has warmed faster than the Southern Hemisphere, and the entire Arctic has warmed faster than anywhere else in the world.

                    The northern polar region, above 64 °N latitude, averaged 2.5 °C (4.5 °F) higher annual temperatures during 2000 to 2009 than in the 1880s.

                    Like the earth as a whole, most of the Arctic's increase occurred during the last three decades. Near the North Pole, the mean annual temperature during 2000 to 2009 was 1.8 °C (3.24 °F) above the average temperature there for 1951 to 1980.

                    World map color-coded to show differences in average annual temperatures (in degrees Celsius) for 2000 - 2009 compared with 1951 - 1980. Source: Goddard Institute for Space Studies

                    About the Temperature Data

                    The temperature data are provided publicly by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), based in New York City. GISS has compiled and analyzed data from a thousand weather stations around the world, ship and satellite observations of sea temperatures, and measurements at Antarctic research stations to form a global temperature index. The annual averages go back in history only to 1880, when meteorologists began using modern scientific instruments to monitor temperatures precisely.


                    GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies). 2010. Surface Temperature Analysis.

                    James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Reto Ruedy, Ken Lo, David W. Lea and Martin Medina-Elizade. 2006. Global temperature change. PNAS.103(39): 14288-14293.

                    How An 11-Year-Old Boy Invented The Popsicle

                    The next time you pop a Popsicle in your mouth, think about this: You're enjoying the fruits of an 11-year-old entrepreneur's labor.

                    Back in 1905, a San Francisco Bay Area kid by the name of Frank Epperson accidentally invented the summertime treat. He had mixed some sugary soda powder with water and left it out overnight. It was a cold night, and the mixture froze. In the morning, Epperson devoured the icy concoction, licking it off the wooden stirrer. He declared it an Epsicle, a portmanteau of icicle and his name, and started selling the treat around his neighborhood.

                    In 1923, Epperson decided to expand sales beyond his neighborhood. He started selling the treat at Neptune Beach, a nearby amusement park. Dubbed a "West Coast Coney Island," the park featured roller coasters, baseball and an Olympic-sized swimming pool. Neptune flourished in the pre-Depression days, and consumers eagerly consumed Epsicles and snow cones (which also made their debut at Neptune).

                    Buoyed by this success, Epperson applied for a patent for his "frozen confection of attractive appearance, which can be conveniently consumed without contamination by contact with the hand and without the need for a plate, spoon, fork or other implement" in 1924. The patent illustrates the requirements for a perfect ice pop, including recommendations on the best wood for the stick: wood-bass, birch and poplar. Eventually, Epperson's children urged him to change the ice pop's name to what they called it: a Pop's 'Sicle, or Popsicle.

                    A 1917 ad for Alameda's Neptune Beach, where Epperson sold his frozen "Epsicle" treats in the early 1920s. Courtesy of hide caption

                    A 1917 ad for Alameda's Neptune Beach, where Epperson sold his frozen "Epsicle" treats in the early 1920s.

                    Courtesy of

                    This origin story is charming, if somewhat apocryphal (sources differ on the details), but it didn't have a happy ending for the inventor. A broke Epperson sold the rights to his creation to the Joe Lowe Co. in the 1920s, much to his regret: "I was flat and had to liquidate all my assets," he later said. "I haven't been the same since."

                    The Lowe Co. went on to catapult Epperson's invention to national success. During the Great Depression, the company debuted the two-stick version of the Popsicle to help consumers stretch their dollar — the duo sold for 5 cents.

                    The patent Frank Epperson filed in 1924 for his "frozen confectionery." United States Patent and Trademark Office hide caption

                    But this delicious duo faced competition from Good Humor, which had recently debuted its own chocolate-covered ice cream on a stick, and Lowe was sued for copyright infringement. The court's compromise? Popsicle could sell water-based treats, and Good Humor could sell ice cream pops. Popsicle tested the limits of the agreement, selling a "Milk Popsicle," and the two companies tussled in court about the definitions of sherbet and ice cream over the years through a series of lawsuits.

                    The giant food corporation Unilever scooped up the Popsicle brand in 1989, expanding the brand beyond its original fruity flavors. It also bought Good Humor, ending the feud between the two icy competitors.

                    Over the years, Epperson's childhood invention has achieved iconic status, standing in for any frozen treat the way Kleenex means a tissue. That explains why also over the years, Unilever has worked to keep the name Popsicle its and its alone: In 2010, the company threatened legal action against artisan Brooklyn ice pop makers People's Pops for using the word "popsicle" on its blog.

                    As for Epperson, he died in 1983 and is buried in Oakland's Mountain View Cemetery, where he's featured on a tour celebrating local food luminaries including chocolate mogul Domingo Ghirardelli and mai tai inventor Victor "Trader Vic" Bergeron.

                    His story lives on in many forms — from the official Popsicle website, where it's illustrated in comic form, to an inspirational Christian self-help book about trusting in God's grand plan for your life. Epperson's childhood invention, born randomly on a freezing night, has also proved to be resoundingly successful and long lived: These days, some 2 billion Popsicles are sold each year.

                    Shelby Pope is a freelance writer living and eating her way through Oakland, Calif. A version of this story first appeared on KQED's Bay Area Bites blog.

                    Global Precipitation

                    For 2015, annual precipitation was just below average on balance for land-based rain gauges around the globe. Precipitation for 2015 was 22.5 mm (0.8 inch) below the 1961&ndash1990 average of 1,033 mm (40.7 inches). As indicated by the Global Precipitation Percentiles map below, the eastern half of the United States was notably wet, as were regions in southern South America, parts of northern and southeastern Europe, and areas of Japan. Dryness was notable in eastern Brazil, central Europe, South Africa, Mongolia, and parts of southeastern Asia. Also, as discussed below, extreme precipitation and drought events occurred across the world.

                    In South Africa, the season from July 2014 to June 2015 was the driest such period since 1991/92 and the third driest in a record that began in 1932/33. The dry conditions are ongoing with no significant rain having yet been received in the early part of the 2015/16 rainy season.

                    The end of summer in the Southern Hemisphere was a dry one for Australia, with February receiving just 49 percent of average monthly precipitation, marking the country's 11 th driest February on record. The dryness encompassed most of the country, with every state and the Northern Territory reporting below-average rainfall. Later, an East Coast Low in late April brought heavy rainfall to coastal New South Wales, Australia, resulting several daily and monthly rainfall records. It was the 11 th wettest April on record and wettest April in 25 years for the state.

                    In February, heavy rain affected countries in southern Europe including Italy and the southern Balkan Peninsula. In May, Sweden was very wet across almost the entire country, with the capital city of Stockholm observing its wettest May in 200 years. Norway had its second wettest May in its 116-year period of record. .

                    Guam International Airport observed just 7.8 mm of precipitation during February. This was the lowest monthly rainfall for any month at this location since records began here in 1957.

                    In February, heavy rain affected Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Alhoceima, Morocco received 206.1 mm, 574 percent of its average monthly precipitation.

                    In February, heavy rain in Argentina broke February precipitation records at many stations. The Córdoba Observatory recorded 385.4 mm of rain for the month, easily surpassing the 127-year standing record of 266.4 mm set in 1889.

                    Torrential rainfall led to major flooding events in Angola in mid-March. The Angolan capital of Luanda was impacted on March 9 th while heavy rainfall and subsequent flooding hit Lobito three days later.

                    Some areas in Chile experienced their driest January in at least 50 years. But near the end of March, in northern Chile, unusually heavy rainfall impacted the extremely dry regions of Atacama and Antofagasta. Some areas received well over their annual rainfall during this event. Antofagasta received 24.4 mm of rainfall in 24 hours during March 25 th &ndash26 th , about the average rainfall expected over a 14-year period.

                    At the end of March drought remained entrenched in the western United States, where mountain snowpack was record low for many locations in the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Moderate to exceptional drought conditions were present across more than 98 percent of California, leading to unprecedented water restrictions in the state. Even with several heavy rainfall events from El Niño conditions toward the end of the year, nearly 88 percent of the state continued to experience the ongoing drought at year's end.

                    Mexico had its wettest March since national records began in 1941, at 373 percent of the normal precipitation. in June, Baja California and Baja California Sur each had their wettest June on record.

                    Heat in Spain during May was accompanied by extreme dryness. With precipitation records dating back to 1947, May 2015 was the driest May on record for the country, with total average rainfall for the month just 25 percent of normal.

                    Heavy rainfall brought torrential floods to the capital city of Tbilisi, Georgia as the Vere River overflowed its banks in June. At least 49 mm of rain fell on June 14 th , with locally heavier amounts in places.

                    Mauritius, in the southwest Indian Ocean, had its wettest June since 1976, receiving 180 percent of average precipitation.

                    New Zealand experienced both wet and dry extremes during June. Due to heavy rains, major flooding impacted areas of the lower North Island during June 20 th &ndash21 st . Whanganui experienced its worst flood on record, as more than 100 mm of rain reportedly fell within a 24-hour period. On the other hand, it was dry in the eastern parts of both the North and South Islands. Soil moisture was particulalry dry around East Cape, around Napier, coastal Wairarapa, southern Marlborough, and eastern parts of Canterbury north of Christchurch.

                    The Southwest Indian monsoon season lasts from June to September. In 2015, the monsoon made its annual onset over Kerala on June 5th, just a few days later than normal. Rainfall for the seasonal period June 1 st to September 30 th was 86 percent of the 1951&ndash2000 average. About half of India received normal rainfall, while the other half received deficient rainfall (less than 80 percent of average). This marks the fourth time in the 115-year record that two consecutive years have been below average.

                    Heavy precipitation fell across parts of northeastern Argentina in August. The heavy downpours overflowed rivers and prompted floods. Many locations broke their precipitation total records for the month.

                    Austria recorded only 35 percent of normal precipitation in August 2015, marking its driest August since 1991.

                    Between May and October, China experienced 35 heavy rain events. During May 5 th &ndash31 st , the Huanan region in the northeast received rainfall 150 percent of its average precipitation, the most in nearly 40 years.

                    Latvia had its driest October on record, at 8.7 mm of rainfall for the month, or 13 percent of the average monthly rainfall. This breaks the previous record of 9.9 mm accumulation set in 1951.

                    In the southwestern highlands of Tanzania 327.8 mm of rain was recorded at the Tukuyu station on November 4 th , the highest recorded at the station.

                    Brazil, which started the year in drought in southern and eastern areas, saw the focus of the drought shift northward with little rainfall during the dry season over the Amazon. The drought continued through the year, impacting major cities including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

                    Large areas of Puerto Rico, Central America, and the Caribbean recorded below average rainfall for the year. This dryness is typical during El Niño events.

                    With an average total of 904 mm, preliminary data indicate that Denmark fell just 1 mm shy of tying 1999 for the wettest year since national records began in 1874. This is despite observing its driest October since 1972, with just 29 mm of rainfall, or about 30 percent of average for the month. November&ndashDecember marked the wettest two-month period since August&ndashSeptember 1994 and the third wettest such period in measurement history.

                    The United Kingdom observed 1289 mm of total rainfall on average during 2015, marking its sixth wettest year in the 116-year period of record. From late autumn through the end of 2015, a series of storms brought extremely wet conditions and flooding to the northern and western regions of the UK. On December 5 th , Storm Desmond dropped 341 mm of rainfall over Honister Pass, Cambria, setting an all-time 24-hour record for the UK.

                    In contrast, France received less than 90 percent of its average precipitation total for 2015, making this one of the 10 driest years for the country in the past half century.

                    Watch the video: History of the World: Every Year