1964 IBM Introduces System 360 - History

1964 IBM Introduces System 360 - History

1964 IBM Introduces System 360

International Business Machines (IBM) introduced the system 360 Comptuter. The computer, which was a second generation computer based on transistors, was a huge success, and became the mainstay computer of many businesses for many years.


Your High School

1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorities war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities. Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century. Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.

How Much things cost in 1964
Yearly Inflation Rate USA 1.28%
Year End Close Dow Jones Industrial Average 874
Average Cost of new house $13,050.00
Average Income per year $6,000.00
Gas per Gallon 30 cents
Average Cost of a new car $3,500.00
Loaf of bread 21 cents
United States Postage Stamp 5 cents
Average Monthly Rent $115.00
Ticket to the movies $1.25

What Events Happened in 1964

  • The abolition of the death penalty in UK
  • US Congress authorizes war against N Vietnam
  • President Lyndon Johnson declares a War On Poverty Campaign.
  • Malta gains independence from the UK
  • Cassius Clay Beats Sonny Liston for World Heavyweight championship
  • The Boston Strangler is captured
  • Work Begins on The Aswan Dam by diverting the Nile to a manmade canal.
  • The British and French Governments announce commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel
  • The first Ford Mustang from Ford Motor Company is made.
  • The most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2, strikes South Central Alaska
  • Race Riots in Harlem New York
  • The Poll Tax becomes illegal in all US states as it been used as a blunt tool for barring poverty-stricken African-Americans and whites from participating in the electoral process.
  • The so called BRAIN DRAIN of UK Scientists from UK to USA
  • Easter and Whitsun outbreak of Mods and Rockers Fights and disturbances on British Seaside Resorts
  • Nelson Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life imprisonment in South Africa
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr receives the Nobel Peace Prize,
  • The PLO Palistinian Liberation Organisation is established with Yasser Arafat as the head
  • The UK Interest Rate is Raised to 7%
  • UK Report expects population to explode over next 20 years and plans for 3 new towns including Milton Keynes
  • James Hoffa is found guilty and sentenced to eight years on bribery charges
  • World's Fair held in New York
  • U.S. Surgeon General repotrs that smoking may lead lung cancer
  • Civil War breaks out in Cyprus between Greeks and Turks
  • Tanzania Gains Independence From Great Britain and combines the former Tanganika and the Island of Zanzibar
  • Malawi Gains Independence From Great Britain
  • A riot during a soccer match between Peru and Argentina ends with the loss of 300 fans dead.
  • Great Train Robbers get 30 years each
  • Malta Gains Independence From Great Britain
  • Jack Ruby is convicted of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy
  • The Summer Olympics are held in Tokyo, Japan
  • The Winter Olympic Games are held in Innsbruck, Austria
  • Sidney Poitier becomes the first black actor to win the "best actor" Oscar
  • "Hello Dolly," "Funny Girl," and "Fiddler on the Roof" premier on Broadway in New York.
  • The Rolling Stones release debut album, "The Rolling Stones"
  • The Beatles make their first appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show.
  • The Beatles have 13 singles Billboard's Hot 100 at the same time
  • The first pirate radio station, Radio Caroline, is established
  • The Beatles hold the top five positions in the Billboard Top 40 singles in America
  • Bob Dylan releases "The Times They Are a-Changin"
  • BBC2 starts broadcasting in the UK.
  • Pablo Picasso painted his fourth Head of a Bearded Man
  • The Sun Newspaper is first published in the United Kingdom
  • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory from Roald Dahl
  • Top of the Pops premieres on BBC television.
  • The Carpetbaggers
  • It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
  • The Unsinkable Molly Brown
  • My Fair Lady
  • Mary Poppins
  • BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy to learn high level programming language is introduced.
  • IBM announces the System/360.
  • The worlds first high speed rail network opens in Japan
  • First Ford Mustang is manufactured
  • Sony introduces the first VCR Home Video Recorder History of Video Recorders
  • The first driver less train runs on London Underground
  • China explodes its first Nuclear bomb

Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )


The history of IBM

Computer giant IBM has its roots in the late 1880s in companies that sold such varied products as scales, time recorders and meat slicers.

But today "Big Blue," so called for its official colour, is now a multinational computer technology company.

Here's a timeline of the company's lengthy history.

IBM's predecessor, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), is incorporated in New York state. It is the result of a merger of three companies. It now sells machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, plus tabulators and punched cards.

CTR begins to focus on large-scale tabulating solutions for businesses and drops small office products.

CTR's name is changed to International Business Machines Corp. By now, it has expanded to three manufacturing facilities in Europe.

IBM manages to grow during the Great Depression.

It adds a new product unit, the electric writing machine division.

IBM gets government contract to maintain employment records for 26 million people under the Social Security Act. It's called the "biggest accounting operation of all time."

All IBM facilities are at the disposal of the U.S. government while the Second World war is underway. Products expand into bombsights, rifles and engine parts. During the war years, IBM makes its first steps into computing.

The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, also called the Mark I, is completed in 1944. It's the first machine that can execute long computations automatically. It was over 15 metres long, 2.5 metres high and weighed more than 4.5 tonnes, but took less than a second to solve an addition problem and six seconds for multiplication.

IBM introduces the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator as the company's first large-scale digital calculating machine.

IBM introduces the IBM 701, the first large computer based on the vacuum tube (which would later be replaced by transistors). It executed 17,000 instructions per second and was used primarily for government and research work. It brought computers into business applications such as billing, payroll and inventory control.

IBM introduces the IBM 305 RAMAC, the first computer disk storage system. Such machines became the industry's storage medium for transaction processing. IBM introduces FORTRAN (FORmula TRANSlation), a computer language based on algebra, grammar and syntax rules that becomes the most widely used computer language for technical work.

IBM 7090, one of the first fully transistorized mainframes, could perform 229,000 calculations per second. The U.S. Air Force used it to run its Ballistic Missile Early Warning System.

After nearly 40 years as IBM's chief executive, Thomas J. Watson Sr., dies. He leaves the job to his son, Thomas J. Watson Jr.

The new CEO leads IBM's transformation from maker of tabulating equipment and typewriters into the computer industry.

IBM introduces System/360, the first large "family" of computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment. It's the first move away from monolithic, one-size-fits-all mainframe. Fortune magazine dubs it "IBM's $5-billion gamble."

IBM stops bundling hardware, services and software in packages and sells individually. This so-called "unbundling" gives birth to multibillion-dollar software and services industries.

Watson family leadership ends. Frank T. Cary takes over in 1973.

Floppy disk introduced and later becomes standard for storing personal computer data.

IBM makes a supermarket checkout station using glass prisms, lenses and a laser to read product prices.

Bank customers making withdrawals, transfers and other account inquiries are using IBM 3614 Consumer Transaction Facility, an early form of today's ATMs.

IBM announces the IBM Personal Computer, with a starting price of $1,565, 16 kilobytes of user memory and optional colour monitor. The processor chip came from Intel and the operating system, called DOS (Disk Operating System), was from Microsoft, then a 32-person company.

The company introduces a token-ring local area network, allowing personal computer users to exchange information and share printers and files within a building or complex.

1980s and 1990s

Revolutions put computers in the homes of millions of people and create a need for larger computers (servers) labouring in the background to link and serve them all. Focus changed to individuals from business productivity.

IBM suffered and by 1993, company's annual net losses reached record $8 billion because it was more focused on business clients than personal computer use.

Despite pressures to split IBM up, the CEO decides to keep it together and start focusing on client/server field. IBM focuses on e-business revolution and sees turnaround in fortunes.

It acquires Lotus Development Corp., whose pioneering Notes software enables greater collaboration across an enterprise. The acquisition makes IBM the world's largest software company.

IBM acquires Tivoli Systems Inc., leading provider of systems management software and services for distributed client/server networks of personal computers and workstations.

It becomes the first major company to introduce a network computer, a new kind of desktop device that provides access to networked applications and processing power.

IBM introduces Deep Blue, a 32-node IBM RS/6000 SP computer programmed to play chess on world-class level. The computer defeats world chess champion Garry Kasparov, the first time a computer had beaten a top-ranked chess player in a tournament game. It ignites debate on how close computers can come to human intelligence. The computer can assess 200 million chess moves per second.

Consumer demand falls due to Y2K and the collapse of dot-coms.

IBM buys the consulting unit of accounting and consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers. It's seen as a key step in IBM transforming itself from a hardware and software company to one focused on consulting and services.


Reorganizing for Success

In 1959 Tom Watson’s focus was on future problems, not on past successes. Rapid changes in technologies and market requirements had overextended the capabilities of the company’s Data Processing Division. Major changes were needed.

Watson’s solution was to remove from that division all responsibility for data processing products except for sales and service. Responsibility for market planning, development and manufacturing would be given to two new divisions. The Data Systems Division, with plants and laboratories in Poughkeepsie, New York, would concentrate on large computer systems, typically renting for more than $10,000 per month. The General Systems Division, with plants and laboratories primarily in Endicott, New York, and San Jose, California, would concentrate on smaller systems.

Both divisions would report to T. Vincent Learson, an imposing man of 6 feet 6, who had a well-deserved reputation for being insightful, aggressive, and decisive. He was the only executive Watson thought was smart enough and tough enough to understand and manage the computer business.


IBM System 360 Changes the Industry Forever

April 7, 1964

IBM launches the System 360 mainframe architecture, which comprised six compatible models complete with 40 peripherals. The line, dubbed the “360″ because it addressed all types and sizes of customer, cost IBM over five billion dollars to develop, and it is widely considered one of the riskiest business gambles of all time.

Up until this time, computer systems, even from the same manufacturer, were generally incompatible with each other. Software and peripherals from old systems would not work with new systems. This stifled acceptance and deployments of new systems as business customers were hesitant to lose their investments in their current systems. By developing a mutually compatible series of mainframes, customers were assured that their investments would not be lost if they purchased further System 360 models.

IBM’s gamble paid off handsomely, as in just the first three months of its release, IBM will receive US$1.2 billion in orders. Within five years, over thirty-three thousand units will be sold, popularizing the concept of a computer “upgrade” around the world. The 360 family was the most successful IBM system of all time, generating in over US$100 billion in revenue through the mid-1980’s. It became the basis for all sequent IBM mainframe architectures, which will hold a 65% marketshare in the 1990’s.

The 360 architecture also introduced a number of industry standards to the marketplace, such as the worldwide standard of the 8-bit byte. Its enormous popularity catapulted the business world into the technology age and transformed the computer industry. Not bad for a bunch of suits.


Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Computer Networks and the Internet

The history of the internet begins in 1962 with J.C.R. Licklider’s memos about an Intergalactic Network idea, in which users around the world are connected and can access programs and data. With colleagues, he forms a research program called Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). After an experiment with an air travel reservation system, the first communication satellite is launched that can allow machines to exchange data. Soon, IBM introduces System 360 computers into the market which becomes remarkably popular. American Airlines debuts IBM’s SABRE air travel reservation system to process on-line transactions, which links over 50 cities through telephone lines (1964).

[1] By 1965 the first wide-area network connection is established by Larry Roberts and Thomas Marill. Over the next four years, the Network Working Group works diligently, creating a router, a modem, and even experimenting with monitors. On October 29, 1969 the first host-to-host connection was made! Then, over 3 years, memory, speed, processing, and communication capabilities are tested and refined and protocols are made. By 1973, 30 institutions are connected to the network called ARPANET. [2] In 1977 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak announced the Apple II computer, opening the consumer and small business market for computers. This led to the creation of more modems for dial up services. A computer science research network called USENET sets up a server where newsgroups can post to, in 1979. A year later an email only service opens. Less than a decade later, 30,000 networks are on the internet due to the advances with computers, including the new Macintosh computer and the use of Ethernet. [3] Within 2 years the number of hosts jumps to over 160,000! By 1991 over 600,000 hosts are connected in over 100 countries! [4] In just 30 years the hypothetical concept J.C.R. Licklider once toyed with has become a part of everyday life! A lot of experimenting and funding went into the creation of this remarkable "cyberspace."

Now that you know the history of how the internet came to be, it's time to start exploring. You double-click your browser of choice, the screen opens up. and you start drawing blanks. 'Where do I go from here?' you might start asking yourself. Just take a deep breath using the internet isn't as complicated as you might think. The most important thing to understand before you start browsing through the cornucopia of online resources is the URL, (Uniform Resource Locator.) The URL uniquely identifies a specific Web page. The URL is composed of a communication protocol, (typically HTTP or HTTPS,) a domain, and a page. If you want to have your own website, you have to buy the domain name and then build upon your address. [5] The most interesting tidbit about domain names is that, just like fingerprints, no two can ever be the same. Unfortunately, this means you can't ever own the domain name www.apetit.com.

In today's technologically booming society, there are hundreds of ways we are connected to computers and the Internet every day. We use computer networks (collections of computers and other devices that are connected together to enable users to share multiple forms of information) [6] on a daily basis. While it is not always free to do so, such as having to pay an Internet service provider (ISP), there are many places that offer free wifi to people in their area. Today, we mostly use networks for social media, communication, and spreading of information. Think of the networks in your life. I'm guessing something like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or LinkedIn came to mind along with many others [7] . These are all networks that allow us to share information whether it be personal, images, news stories, surveys, information on new products, etc., these networks have become engrained into our daily lives and most people see them as helpful devices for distance communication and spreading of ideas. Another way we use the Internet for communication is through email. Most people today have an email address because they are required for registration for many different things we use on a daily basis (such as the networks previously listed) [8] . Usernames for e-mails have to be unique to ensure that every person in the world that wants to be on the Internet can have e-mail. E-mails consist of a username (something to identify it specifically), followed by the @ symbol, and finally a domain name like “yahoo”, “gmail”, and many others. Many usernames just incorporate a person’s name, but you can also use periods, underscores, numbers and other symbols to make it unique. In the past, blank spaces were not allowed in a username but some companies do allow it now. One symbol that is still not allowed in a username is the @ symbol, because it could be confused with the same symbol that separates the username and domain name. An example of this is Drupal. It is each company’s responsibility to make sure that each username attached to their domain name is unique. Today's evolving technology is making it easier to access things like networks and email through all of the mobile devices available and the use of apps or condensed mobile versions of the full desktop websites. Besides the obvious social uses of e-mail communication, they are now being used to help college campuses communicate with their students to help alert the students of an emergency like a tornado, dangerous lightning storm, flood warning, or if an intruder is on the campus. All in all, the Internet and computer have changed our world in forms of communication. [9] [10]

Searching the internet for a specific page or phrase has become easier than ever through the help of online search engines. Certain webpages, most popularly Google, have specific programs and algorithms that sort through the vast expanse of information available on the web. These websites work by processing keywords that are typed into the search bar and displaying a large list of webpages matching the keywords. Even in the early days of the internet there were programs such as “Gopher” that could help search the net, although the scale of these searches has risen exponentially since then. [11] Using special programs called “spiders”, the search engine compiles a list of results by crawling through the internet starting with the most popular websites and servers for the keywords searched. Through these processes an index is created by the spiders that is constantly being updated regarding the most popular and relevant results of all searches being completed, which on Google is over 3.5 billion per day and 1.2 trillion per year [12] . The more that people use these search engines, the faster and more efficient they become. Other websites may search for more specific information on webpages such as phone numbers, addresses, and maps. The websites where this information is kept are called reference pages.

TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol –the most prevalent protocol stack used to connect hosts to the network and networks to each other. The suite of communication protocols has been developed due the request of the Department of Defense as a protocol of an interconnection the experimental “ARPANET” and diverse computing networks. A great contribution to the development of TCP / IP stack has made by the University of Berkeley, implementing protocols stack in its version of OS UNIX which has led to widespread IP protocol. Moreover, the Internet, the biggest global information network, runs on TCP/IP suite and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a major contributor to the improvement of the standards of the stack, published in the form of specification RFC. Since the TCP / IP stack was designed before the OSI – Open System Interconnection, his 4 layered structure also corresponds to 7 layered OSI model is rather arbitrary. The lowest (level 4) corresponds to the physical and data link layer model OSI. This level in the TCP / IP protocols is not regulated, but it supports all popular standards of physical and data link layer both LAN (Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, Fast Ethernet, 100VG-AnyLAN0 and WAN - communication protocols, ("Point to Point" SLIP, PPP X.25, Frame Relay). The next level (level 3) - is the level of interconnection, which is engaged in the transmission of packets using a variety of transport technologies of local networks, regional networks, special communication lines, and so on. As the main network layer protocol (in terms of the model OSI) IP, which was originally designed to transmit packets through the many numbers of networks, combined both local and global protocols. Therefore, the IP protocol works well in networks with complex topologies using rationally presence of subsystems and economically consuming bandwidth low-speed communication lines. The IP protocol is a datagram protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of packets to the destination node, but trying to do it. Besides the IP protocol, internet layer is represented by some other protocols such as RIP (Routing Internet Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). The last protocol is designed to share information about errors between routers and network node. Level 2 is called the primary. This level is a field of a functioning TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP provides the guaranteed delivering of the information and usually is being used by applications if data integrity and accuracy are critical. The UDP is being used for a non-guaranteed transmitting. The upper level 1 is the application level. Over the years, TCP / IP stack has accumulated a large number of protocols and application-level services. These include such widely used protocols as protocol to copy files FTP, TFTP, telnet, SMTP, HTTP, DNS and etc. [13]


IBM Company History Timeline

1880: Founder Charles Ranlett Flint established Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (Currently known as IBM).

1924: Thomas J. Watson, the then GM renamed CTR to IBM.

1949: Thomas Watson created IBM World Trade Corporation by internationally focussing on foreign operations.

1964 - 1970: IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360 followed by IBM System/370

1988: IBM introduces the IBM AS/400 (Application System/400), a new family of easy-to-use computers designed for small and intermediate-sized companies.

2005: IBM sold its personal computer business to ‘Lenovo’ - Chinese technology company


1964 IBM Introduces System 360 - History

1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorities war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities. Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century. Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.

How Much things cost in 1964
Yearly Inflation Rate USA 1.28%
Year End Close Dow Jones Industrial Average 874
Average Cost of new house $13,050.00
Average Income per year $6,000.00
Gas per Gallon 30 cents
Average Cost of a new car $3,500.00
Loaf of bread 21 cents
United States Postage Stamp 5 cents
Average Monthly Rent $115.00
Ticket to the movies $1.25

What Events Happened in 1964

  • The abolition of the death penalty in UK
  • US Congress authorizes war against N Vietnam
  • President Lyndon Johnson declares a War On Poverty Campaign.
  • Malta gains independence from the UK
  • Cassius Clay Beats Sonny Liston for World Heavyweight championship
  • The Boston Strangler is captured
  • Work Begins on The Aswan Dam by diverting the Nile to a manmade canal.
  • The British and French Governments announce commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel
  • The first Ford Mustang from Ford Motor Company is made.
  • The most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2, strikes South Central Alaska
  • Race Riots in Harlem New York
  • The Poll Tax becomes illegal in all US states as it been used as a blunt tool for barring poverty-stricken African-Americans and whites from participating in the electoral process.
  • The so called BRAIN DRAIN of UK Scientists from UK to USA
  • Easter and Whitsun outbreak of Mods and Rockers Fights and disturbances on British Seaside Resorts
  • Nelson Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life imprisonment in South Africa
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr receives the Nobel Peace Prize,
  • The PLO Palistinian Liberation Organisation is established with Yasser Arafat as the head
  • The UK Interest Rate is Raised to 7%
  • UK Report expects population to explode over next 20 years and plans for 3 new towns including Milton Keynes
  • James Hoffa is found guilty and sentenced to eight years on bribery charges
  • World's Fair held in New York
  • U.S. Surgeon General repotrs that smoking may lead lung cancer
  • Civil War breaks out in Cyprus between Greeks and Turks
  • Tanzania Gains Independence From Great Britain and combines the former Tanganika and the Island of Zanzibar
  • Malawi Gains Independence From Great Britain
  • A riot during a soccer match between Peru and Argentina ends with the loss of 300 fans dead.
  • Great Train Robbers get 30 years each
  • Malta Gains Independence From Great Britain
  • Jack Ruby is convicted of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President Kennedy
  • The Summer Olympics are held in Tokyo, Japan
  • The Winter Olympic Games are held in Innsbruck, Austria
  • Sidney Poitier becomes the first black actor to win the "best actor" Oscar
  • "Hello Dolly," "Funny Girl," and "Fiddler on the Roof" premier on Broadway in New York.
  • The Rolling Stones release debut album, "The Rolling Stones"
  • The Beatles make their first appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show.
  • The Beatles have 13 singles Billboard's Hot 100 at the same time
  • The first pirate radio station, Radio Caroline, is established
  • The Beatles hold the top five positions in the Billboard Top 40 singles in America
  • Bob Dylan releases "The Times They Are a-Changin"
  • BBC2 starts broadcasting in the UK.
  • Pablo Picasso painted his fourth Head of a Bearded Man
  • The Sun Newspaper is first published in the United Kingdom
  • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory from Roald Dahl
  • Top of the Pops premieres on BBC television.
  • The Carpetbaggers
  • It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World
  • The Unsinkable Molly Brown
  • My Fair Lady
  • Mary Poppins
  • BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy to learn high level programming language is introduced.
  • IBM announces the System/360.
  • The worlds first high speed rail network opens in Japan
  • First Ford Mustang is manufactured
  • Sony introduces the first VCR Home Video Recorder History of Video Recorders
  • The first driver less train runs on London Underground
  • China explodes its first Nuclear bomb

Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )


IBM OS/360

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IBM OS/360, in full International Business Machines Operating System/360, an operating system introduced by IBM in 1964 to operate its 360 family of mainframe computer systems. The 360 system was unprecedented in its ability to support a wide array of applications, and it was one of the first operating systems to require direct-access storage devices.

The name 360 was chosen to convey that a single system could support a full range of machines, though three versions of the operating system existed. OS/360 PCP (Principal Control Program) was the simplest and could run only one program at a time. IBM used it in-house for developing other systems. OS/360 MFT (Multiple Programming with a Fixed Number of Tasks) could run several programs but only after partitioning the memory required to run each its limitation was that, if one program was idle, memory devoted to it was inaccessible by other programs. OS/MVT (Multiple Programming with a Variable Number of Tasks) allowed memory divisions to be re-created as needed. Whenever memory was available, the system searched a queue of jobs for any that could be run on available memory. OS/MVT was also able to allocate all a computer’s memory to a single large job, creating a versatility unavailable in other operating systems.

With the advent of virtual addressing hardware, or virtual memory, a process in which discontiguous computer memory is made to appear contiguous (and thus sufficient) to applications, OS/MFT was renamed OS/VS1, and OS/MVT became OS/VS2. OS/VS2 later became the standard system, OS/MVS (Multiple Virtual Spaces). As of 2000, OS/360 entered the public domain, making it freely available for download by users and developers.

This article was most recently revised and updated by William L. Hosch, Associate Editor.


Computer History 101: The Development Of The PC

Many discoveries and inventions have directly and indirectly contributed to the development of the PC and other personal computers as we know them today. Examining a few important developmental landmarks can help bring the entire picture into focus.

The Timeline Of Computer Advancements:

The following is a timeline of significant events in computer history. It is not meant to be complete, just a representation of some of the major landmarks in computer development:

Pre-1900s: Mechanical Computers

1617: John Napier creates &ldquoNapier&rsquos Bones,&rdquo wooden or ivory rods used for ­calculating.

1642: Blaise Pascal introduces the Pascaline digital adding machine.

1822: Charles Babbage introduces the Difference Engine and later the Analytical Engine, a true general-purpose computing machine.

The Early 1900s: The Vacuum Tube Era

1906: Lee De Forest patents the vacuum tube triode, used as an electronic switch in the first electronic computers.

1936: Alan Turing publishes &ldquoOn Computable Numbers,&rdquo a paper in which he conceives an imaginary computer called the Turing Machine, considered one of the foundations of modern computing. Turing later worked on breaking the German Enigma code.

1936: Konrad Zuse begins work on a series of computers that will culminate in 1941 when he finishes work on the Z3. These are considered the first working electric binary computers, using electromechanical switches and relays.

1937: John V. Atanasoff begins work on the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), which would later be officially credited as the first electronic computer. Note that an electronic computer uses tubes, transistors, or other solid-state switching devices, whereas an electric computer uses electric motors, solenoids, or relays (electromechanical switches).

1943: Thomas (Tommy) Flowers develops the Colossus, a secret British code-breaking computer designed to decode teleprinter messages encrypted by the German army.

1945: John von Neumann writes &ldquoFirst Draft of a Report on the EDVAC,&rdquo in which he outlines the architecture of the modern stored-program computer.

1946: ENIAC is introduced, an electronic computing machine built by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.

1947: On December 23, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen successfully test the point-contact transistor, setting off the semiconductor revolution.

1949: Maurice Wilkes assembles the EDSAC, the first practical stored-program computer, at Cambridge University.

1950: Engineering Research Associates of Minneapolis builds the ERA 1101, one of the first commercially produced ­computers.

1952: The UNIVAC I delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau is the first commercial computer to attract widespread public attention.

1953: IBM ships its first electronic computer, the 701.

1954: A silicon-based junction transistor, perfected by Gordon Teal of Texas Instruments, Inc., brings a tremendous reduction in costs.

1954: The IBM 650 magnetic drum calculator establishes itself as the first mass-produced computer, with the company selling 450 in one year.

1955-1981: From Transistors In Labs, To Integrated Circuits In The Home

1955: Bell Laboratories announces the first fully transistorized computer, TRADIC.

1956: MIT researchers build the TX-0, the first general-purpose, programmable computer built with transistors.

1956: The era of magnetic disk storage dawns with IBM&rsquos shipment of a 305 RAMAC to Zellerbach Paper in San Francisco.

1958: Jack Kilby creates the first integrated circuit at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors can exist on the same piece of semiconductor material.

1959: IBM&rsquos 7000 series mainframes are the company&rsquos first transistorized computers.

1959: Robert Noyce&rsquos practical integrated circuit, invented at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., allows printing of conducting channels directly on the silicon surface.

1960: Bell Labs designs its Dataphone, the first commercial modem, specifically for converting digital computer data to analog signals for transmission across its long-distance network.

1961: According to Datamation magazine, IBM has an 81.2% share of the computer market in 1961, the year in which it introduces the 1400 series.

1964: IBM announces System/360, a family of six mutually compatible computers and 40 peripherals that can work together.

1964: Online transaction processing makes its debut in IBM&rsquos SABRE reservation system, set up for American Airlines.

1965: Digital Equipment Corp. introduces the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer.

1969: The root of what is to become the Internet begins when the Department of Defense establishes four nodes on the ARPAnet: two at University of California campuses (one at Santa Barbara and one at Los Angeles) and one each at Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah.

1971: A team at IBM&rsquos San Jose Laboratories invents the 8-inch floppy disk drive.

1971: The first advertisement for a microprocessor, the Intel 4004, appears in Electronic News.

1971: The Kenbak-1, one of the first personal computers, is advertised for $750 in Scientific American.

1972: Intel&rsquos 8008 microprocessor makes its debut.

1973: Robert Metcalfe devises the Ethernet method of network connection at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.

1973: The Micral is the earliest commercial, nonkit personal computer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.

1973: The TV Typewriter, designed by Don Lancaster, provides the first display of alphanumeric information on an ordinary television set.

1974: Researchers at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center design the Alto, the first workstation with a built-in mouse for input.

1974: Scelbi advertises its 8H computer, the first commercially advertised U.S. computer based on a microprocessor, Intel&rsquos 8008.

1975: Telenet, the first commercial packet-switching network and civilian equivalent of ARPAnet, is born.

1975: The January edition of Popular Electronics features the Altair 8800, which is based on Intel&rsquos 8080 microprocessor, on its cover.

1976: Steve Wozniak designs the Apple I, a ­single-board computer.

1976: The 5 1/4-inch floppy disk drive is introduced by Shugart Associates.

1977: Tandy RadioShack introduces the TRS-80.

1977: Apple Computer introduces the Apple II.

1977: Commodore introduces the PET (Personal Electronic Transactor).

1979: Motorola introduces the 68000 microprocessor.

1980: Seagate Technology creates the first hard disk drive for microcomputers, the ST-506.

1981-1995: The PC-Compatible Standard Is Entrenched

1981: Xerox introduces the Star, the first personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI).

1981: Adam Osborne completes the first portable computer, the Osborne I, which weighs 24 pounds and costs $1795.

1981: IBM introduces its PC, igniting a fast growth of the personal computer market. The IBM PC is the grandfather of all ­modern PCs.

1981: Sony introduces and ships the first 3 1/2-inch floppy disk drive.

1981: Philips and Sony introduce the CD-DA (compact disc digital audio) format.

1983: Apple introduces its Lisa, which incorporates a GUI that&rsquos similar to the one introduced on the Xerox Star.

1983: Compaq Computer Corp. introduces its first PC clone that uses the same software as the IBM PC.

1984: Apple Computer launches the Macintosh, the first successful mouse-driven computer with a GUI, with a single $1.5 million commercial during the 1984 Super Bowl.

1984: IBM releases the PC-AT (PC Advanced Technology), three times faster than original PCs and based on the Intel 286 chip. The AT introduces the 16-bit ISA bus and is the computer on which all modern PCs are based.

1985: Philips introduces the first CD-ROM drive.

1986: Compaq announces the Deskpro 386, the first computer on the market to use Intel&rsquos 32-bit 386 chip.

1987: IBM introduces its PS/2 machines, which make the 3 1/2-inch floppy disk drive and VGA video standard for PCs. The PS/2 also introduces the MicroChannel Architecture (MCA) bus, the first plug-and-play bus for PCs.

1988: Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, who left Apple to form his own company, unveils the NeXT Computer.

1988: Compaq and other PC-clone makers develop Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture (EISA), which unlike MicroChannel retains backward compatibility with the existing ISA bus.

1988 Robert Morris&rsquos worm floods the ARPAnet. The 23-year-old Morris, the son of a computer security expert for the National Security Agency, sends a nondestructive worm through the Internet, causing problems for about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts linked to the network.

1989 Intel releases the 486 (P4) microprocessor, which contains more than one million transistors. Intel also introduces 486 motherboard chipsets.

1990 The World Wide Web (WWW) is born when Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN&mdashthe high-energy physics laboratory in Geneva&mdashdevelops Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

1993-2005: Windows 95 to XP, Pentiums, And Athlons

1993 Intel releases the Pentium (P5) processor. Intel shifts from numbers to names for its chips after the company learns it&rsquos impossible to trademark a number. Intel also releases motherboard chipsets and, for the first time, complete motherboards.

1995: Intel releases the Pentium Pro processor, the first in the P6 processor family.

1995: Microsoft releases Windows 95 in a huge rollout.

1997: Intel releases the Pentium II processor, essentially a Pentium Pro with MMX instructions added.

1997: AMD introduces the K6, which is compatible with the Intel P5 (Pentium).

1998: Microsoft releases Windows 98.

1998: Intel releases the Celeron, a low-cost version of the Pentium II processor. Initial versions have no cache, but within a few months Intel introduces versions with a smaller but faster L2 cache.

1999: Intel releases the Pentium III, essentially a Pentium II with SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) added.

1999: AMD introduces the Athlon.

1999: The IEEE officially approves the 5 GHz band 802.11a 54 Mb/s and 2.4 GHz band 802.11b 11 Mb/s wireless networking standards. The Wi-Fi Alliance is formed to certify 802.11b products, ensuring interoperability.

2000: The first 802.11b Wi-Fi-certified products are introduced, and wireless networking rapidly builds momentum.

2000: Microsoft releases Windows Me (Millennium Edition) and Windows 2000.

2000: Both Intel and AMD introduce processors running at 1GHz.

2000: AMD introduces the Duron, a low-cost Athlon with reduced L2 cache.

2000: Intel introduces the Pentium 4, the latest processor in the Intel Architecture 32-bit (IA-32) family.

2001: The industry celebrates the 20th anniversary of the release of the original IBM PC.

2001: Intel introduces the first 2 GHz processor, a version of the Pentium 4. It takes the industry 28 1/2 years to go from 108 KHz to 1 GHz but only 18 months to go from 1 GHz to 2 GHz.

2001: Microsoft releases Windows XP, the first mainstream 32-bit operating system (OS), merging the consumer and business OS lines under the same code base (NT 5.1).

2001: Atheros introduces the first 802.11a 54 Mb/s high-speed wireless chips, allowing 802.11a products to finally reach the market.

2002: Intel releases the first 3 GHz-class processor, a 3.06 GHz version of the Pentium 4. This processor also introduces Intel&rsquos Hyper-Threading (HT) technology, appearing as two processors to the OS.

2003-Present: Multiple CPU Cores And 64-bits

2003: Intel releases the Pentium M, a processor designed specifically for mobile systems, offering extremely low power consumption that results in dramatically increased battery life while still offering relatively high performance.

2003: AMD releases the Athlon 64, the first x86-64 (64-bit) processor for PCs, which also includes integrated memory controllers.

2003: The IEEE officially approves the 802.11g 54 Mb/s high-speed wireless networking standard.

2004: Intel introduces a version of the Pentium 4 codenamed Prescott, the first PC processor built on 90-nanometer technology.

2004: Intel introduces EM64T (Extended Memory 64 Technology), which is a 64-bit extension to Intel&rsquos IA-32 architecture based on (and virtually identical to) the x86-64 (AMD64) technology first released by AMD.

2005: Microsoft releases Windows XP x64 Edition, which supports processors with 64-bit AMD64 and EM64T extensions.

2005: The era of multicore PC processors begins as Intel introduces the Pentium D 8xx and Pentium Extreme Edition 8xx dual-core processors. AMD soon follows with the dual-core Athlon 64 X2.

2006: Apple introduces the first Macintosh systems based on PC architecture, stating they are four times faster than previous non-PC-based Macs.

2006: Intel introduces the Core 2 Extreme, the first quad-core processor for PCs.

2006: Microsoft releases the long-awaited Windows Vista to business users. The PC OEM and consumer market releases would follow in early 2007:

2007: Intel releases the 3x series chipsets with support for DDR3 memory and PCI Express 2.0, which doubles the available bandwidth.

2007: AMD releases the Phenom processors, the first quad-core processors for PCs with all four cores on a single die.

2008: Intel releases the Core i-series (Nehalem) processors, which are dual- or quad-core chips with optional Hyper-Threading (appearing as four or eight cores to the OS) that include an integrated memory controller.

2008: Intel releases the 4x and 5x-series chipsets, the latter of which supports Core i-series processors with integrated memory ­controllers.

2009: Microsoft releases Windows 7, a highly anticipated successor to Vista.

2009: AMD releases the Phenom II processors in 2-, 3-, and 4-core versions.

2010: Intel releases six-core versions of the Core i-series processor (Gulftown) and a dual-core version with integrated graphics (Clarkdale). The Gulftown is the first PC processor with more than 1 billion ­transistors.

2010: AMD releases six-core versions of the Phenom II processor.

2011: Intel releases the second-generation Core i-series processors along with new 6-series motherboard chipsets. The chipsets and motherboards are quickly recalled due to a bug in the SATA host adapter. The recall costs Intel nearly a billion dollars and results in a several month delay in the processors and chipsets reaching the ­market.


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