Peter Cusick

Peter Cusick

Peter Cusick was born in California in 1910. A strong supporter of the Allied cause during the Second World War he helped form the Fight for Freedom group. He became Executive Secretary and other members included Allen W. Dulles, Joseph Alsop, Henry Luce, Dean G. Acheson, James P. Warburg, Marshall Field III, Fiorello LaGuardia and Ralph Ingersoll. At its peak, the FFF headquarters at New York City, 1270 Sixth Avenue, had an office staff of twenty-five.

The Japanese Air Force attacked Pearl Harbor on 7th December, 1941 and the Fight for Freedom group closed soon afterwards. Cusick joined the United States Army and was decorated with the Croix de Guerre by General Jean LeClerc of the Free French Armed Forces.

According to the New York Times, after the war Cusick was a private consultant on government and foreign affairs and was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Peter Cusick died of a heart attack in Manhattan in September 1982. Cusick was survived by his wife, Edla, two children, Michael and Missy, and three grandchildren.


Beloved Democratic matriarch Mimi Cusick dies at 88

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. -- Her name may have never appeared on a ballot for political office on Staten Island, but behind the scenes, Mimi Cusick was known as a larger-than-life political figure in the borough’s Democratic politics for the last five decades.

During any Democratic race on the Island, Mrs. Cusick could be found putting together a team of volunteers to work on a campaign, stuffing and mailing out campaign literature or running the show at Democratic County Committee meetings.

“Mimi Cusick was a real pillar behind the scenes in the Democratic party for all the years that I knew her,” said longtime Democrat Robert Gigante, the Island’s former Surrogate Court judge and chair of the Democratic Part for years.

Mrs. Cusick died in her home in Westerleigh on Sunday afternoon surrounded by her loved ones. She was 88-years-old.

Gigante met Mrs. Cusick in 1978 when he ran against the late Sen. John Marchi when Gigante worked as the Staten Island Democratic Party’s law chairman.

“She was somebody who was very concerned about our quality of life here on Staten Island and she was a doer,” Gigante said. “Whenever we needed help at the county headquarters or on any campaign, Mimi was always there, behind the scenes, but she was always there."

She was a lifelong Staten Islander born in 1931 in St. Vincent’s Hospital who dedicated herself to Democratic politics from a young age.

POLITICAL PASSION AND DEVOTED MOM

Mrs. Cusick was a beloved presence in Staten Island’s Democratic Party politics and the matriarch of one of the top Democratic families in the borough’s political history.

In her early 20s she and her brother, John Kearney, the Island’s former Public Administrator for Richmond County, joined the Staten Island Democratic Party as young Democrats.

She served in the party for the remainder of her life and was even re-elected as a Democratic County Committee member last year.

The Island’s Democratic Party is also where Mrs. Cusick met her husband, the late Supreme Court Justice Peter Cusick.

The couple wed in 1967 and went on to have three sons -- Peter, John and Michael -- Michael now an assemblyman who represents the 63rd Assembly district and serves as the Democratic Party’s chairman.

Outside of politics, once her children left for college, Mrs. Cusick went back to work in 1987 as a school safety officer at PS 30 and PS 22 for 20 years.

Assemblyman Cusick said often on the campaign trail when he would knock on doors in his district, constituents would recognize him because of his mother when he would come face-to-face with parents of her former students or her former students.

Former PS 30 School Secretary Babara Smith of Great Kills recalls being an awe of an older woman coming on the job as a school safety officer. But Smith said Mrs. Cusick went on to become “the best [school safety officer] we ever had.”

Smith said she would knew all the parents and students who came through the school doors and didn’t let anyone she did not know get past her desk.

HER SON’S VIEW A WELCOMING HOME

Assemblyman Cusick said his late mother never ran for office because she knew she could affect more change from behind the scenes and get into the “nitty gritty of campaigns.”

“Politics was important to her in a sense that she knew that politics was a good vehicle for a better life on Staten Island for people,” Assemblyman Cusick said.

Mimi Cusick was also known to unite Democrats and Republicans together on the Island.

She was known for hosting annual gatherings on New Year’s Day, Fourth of July and before, during and after the St. Patrick’s Parade, in her home on College Avenue.

Her parties were attended by judges, senators, governors, and mayors, recalled Kathryn Rooney, chairman of the Board of Trustees of Richmond University Medical Center.

One year, Assemblyman Cusick remembers former Gov. David Paterson and former Mayor Michael Bloomberg sitting on either side of her at the picnic table of their backyard, holding court.

“Mimi was the beating heart of a vast community of friends, family, and neighbors. Her home was where everyone headed for New Year’s Day, the Fourth of July, and for green bagels after the Island’s St. Patrick’s Day parade. You were always welcome at Mimi’s, and you wanted to be there, to bask in the warmth of her graciousness and fabulous smile," said Rooney.

State Sen. Diane Savino said Mrs. Cusick was integral to fellow women in the Democratic Party, often encouraging local women to get involved in politics.

“She was a person who helped build the party and showed that women could be as effective as the old boys, but in their own way,” Savino said. “She had her own style.”

“She was always involved no matter what races we were involved in,” said City Planning Commissioner and former MTA Board member Allen Cappelli. “Whether it was Eric Vitaliano running for Congress, organizing people to perform tasks, whether it was Ralph Lamberti running for borough president, she was involved in all of it.”

Now U.S. District Court Judge for the Eastern District, Eric Vitaliano recalled Mrs. Cusick as someone who could find humor in politics and the “last living link to the hegemony of West Brighton Irish leaders of the Staten Island Democratic Party.”

“Though she came from a time when women were viewed as the ‘auxiliary,' Mimi was a full-throated partner with her husband Pete and brother John Kearney,” Vitaliano said. “It has come full circle now with Mimi living long enough to see [her son] Mike not only a member of the Assembly but also Democratic County Leader, the position her brother John so richly deserved. Her laugh is silent now but, even through the tears, it is impossible to think of Mimi without a smile coming to your face."

“Mimi was not only the matriarch of a wonderful and beautiful family but she served and advised the wider community -- from her local Westerleigh neighborhood to the Islandwide political and civic centers of meaningful decision making -- with compassion, wisdom and wit,” said District Attorney Michael McMahon. “With a twinkle in her eye and incomparable empathy and understanding for others, her generous spirit raised up everyone she met. Just speaking with her made you feel good. Including my wife Judith and I, every aspiring Democratic elected official would stop at Mimi’s house and benefit from her sage counsel and her Irish-American charm and humor. We will miss her dearly and extend our condolences to the entire Cusick-Kearney clan.”


Peter Cusick - History

Michael Peter Cusick was born on December 8, 1947. According to our records New York was his home or enlistment state and New York County included within the archival record. We have New York listed as the city. He was drafted into the Army. Entered the service via Selective Service. Served during the Vietnam War. He began his tour on January 10, 1968. Cusick had the rank of Specialist Four. His military occupation or specialty was Light Weapons Infantry. Service number assignment was 52754398. Attached to 1st Aviation Brigade, 3rd Squadron, 17th Cavalry, B Troop. During his service in the Vietnam War, Army Specialist Four Cusick experienced a traumatic event which ultimately resulted in loss of life on November 25, 1968 . Recorded circumstances attributed to: Died through hostile action, small arms fire. Incident location: South Vietnam, Tay Ninh province. Michael is honored on the Vietnam Veteran's Memorial in Washington DC. Name inscribed at VVM Wall, Panel 38w, Line 56.

Contents

Composition Edit

The gospel of John, like all the gospels, is anonymous. [12] John 21:24-25 references a Beloved Disciple, stating of him: "This is the disciple who is testifying to these things and has written them, and we know that his testimony is true but there are also many other things that Jesus did if all of them were written down, I suppose that the world itself would not contain the books that would be written." [9] Early Christian tradition, first attested by Irenaeus (c. 130 – c. 202 AD), identified this disciple with John the Apostle, but most scholars have abandoned this hypothesis or hold it only tenuously [13] – for example, the gospel is written in good Greek and displays sophisticated theology, and is therefore unlikely to have been the work of a simple fisherman. [14] These verses imply rather that the core of the gospel relies on the testimony (perhaps written) of the "disciple who is testifying", as collected, preserved and reshaped by a community of followers (the "we" of the passage), and that a single follower (the "I") rearranged this material and perhaps added the final chapter and other passages to produce the final gospel. [9] Most scholars believe that John reached its final form around AD 90–110. [5] Given its complex history there may have been more than one place of composition, and while the author was familiar with Jewish customs and traditions, his frequent clarification of these implies that he wrote for a mixed Jewish/Gentile or Jewish context outside Palestine.

Recent arguments by Richard Bauckham and others that John's gospel preserves eyewitness testimony have not won general acceptance. [15] [16] The author may have drawn on a "signs source" (a collection of miracles) for chapters 1-12, a "passion source" for the story of Jesus's arrest and crucifixion, and a "sayings source" for the discourses, but these hypotheses are much debated [17] He seems to have known some version of Mark and Luke, as he shares with them some items of vocabulary and clusters of incidents arranged in the same order, [18] [19] but key terms from those gospels are absent or nearly so, implying that if he did know them he felt free to write independently. [19] The Hebrew scriptures were an important source, [20] with 14 direct quotations (versus 27 in Mark, 54 in Matthew, 24 in Luke), and their influence is vastly increased when allusions and echoes are included. [21] The majority of John's direct quotations do not agree exactly with any known version of the Jewish scriptures. [22]

Setting: the Johannine community debate Edit

For much of the 20th century, scholars interpreted the Gospel of John within the paradigm of a hypothetical "Johannine community", [23] meaning that the gospel sprang from a late-1st-century Christian community excommunicated from the Jewish synagogue (probably meaning the Jewish community) [24] on account of its belief in Jesus as the promised Jewish messiah. [25] This interpretation, which saw the community as essentially sectarian and standing outside the mainstream of early Christianity, has been increasingly challenged in the first decades of the 21st century, [26] and there is currently considerable debate over the social, religious and historical context of the gospel. [27] Nevertheless, the Johannine literature as a whole (made up of the gospel, the three Johannine epistles, and Revelation), points to a community holding itself distinct from the Jewish culture from which it arose while cultivating an intense devotion to Jesus as the definitive revelation of a God with whom they were in close contact through the Paraclete. [28]

The majority of scholars see four sections in John's gospel: a prologue (1:1–18) an account of the ministry, often called the "Book of Signs" (1:19–12:50) the account of Jesus' final night with his disciples and the passion and resurrection, sometimes called the Book of Glory (13:1–20:31) and a conclusion (20:30–31) to these is added an epilogue which most scholars believe did not form part of the original text (Chapter 21). [29]

However, Richard Bauckham lists many scholars who argue against John 21 as having been added later. He himself states : “In my view he Gospel (John) now ends as it was always intended to end. Nothing has been subsequently added.” [30]

  • The prologue informs readers of the true identity of Jesus, the Word of God through whom the world was created and who took on human form [31] he came to the Jews and the Jews rejected him, but "to all who received him (the circle of Christian believers), who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God." [32]
  • Book of Signs (ministry of Jesus): Jesus calls his disciples and begins his earthly ministry. [33] He travels from place to place informing his hearers about God the Father in long discourses, offering eternal life to all who will believe, and performing miracles which are signs of the authenticity of his teachings, but this creates tensions with the religious authorities (manifested as early as 5:17–18), who decide that he must be eliminated. [33][34]
  • The Book of Glory tells of Jesus's return to his heavenly father: it tells how he prepares his disciples for their coming lives without his physical presence and his prayer for himself and for them, followed by his betrayal, arrest, trial, crucifixion and post-resurrection appearances. [34]
  • The conclusion sets out the purpose of the gospel, which is "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name." [3]
  • Chapter 21, the addendum, tells of Jesus' post-resurrection appearances in Galilee, the miraculous catch of fish, the prophecy of the crucifixion of Peter, and the fate of the Beloved Disciple. [3]

The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God" (the same title, dominus et deus, claimed by the Emperor Domitian, an indication of the date of composition). [2]

Christology Edit

Scholars agree that while John clearly regards Jesus as divine, he just as clearly subordinates him to the one God. [35] The idea of the Trinity developed only slowly through the merger of Hebrew monotheism and the idea of the messiah, Greek ideas of the relationship between God, the world, and the mediating Saviour, and the Egyptian concept of the three-part divinity. [36] John's "high Christology" depicts Jesus as divine and pre-existent, defends him against Jewish claims that he was "making himself equal to God" [37] , [38] and talks openly about his divine role and echoing Yahweh's "I Am that I Am" with seven "I Am" declarations of his own. [39] [Notes 1]

Logos Edit

In the prologue, the gospel identifies Jesus as the Logos or Word. In Ancient Greek philosophy, the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason. [40] In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom, God's companion and intimate helper in creation. [ citation needed ] The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God's creator of and mediator with the material world. According to Stephen Harris, the gospel adapted Philo's description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos. [41]

Another possibility is that the title Logos is based on the concept of the divine Word found in the Targums (Aramaic translation/interpretations recited in the synagogue after the reading of the Hebrew Scriptures). In the Targums (which all post-date the first century but which give evidence of preserving early material), the concept of the divine Word was used in a manner similar to Philo, namely, for God's interaction with the world (starting from creation) and especially with his people, e.g. Israel, was saved from Egypt by action of "the Word of the LORD," both Philo and the Targums envision the Word as being manifested between the cherubim and the Holy of Holies, etc. [42]

Cross Edit

The portrayal of Jesus' death in John is unique among the four Gospels. It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology indicative of vicarious sacrifice [43] but rather presents the death of Jesus as his glorification and return to the Father. Likewise, the three "passion predictions" of the Synoptic Gospels [44] are replaced instead in John with three instances of Jesus explaining how he will be exalted or "lifted up". [45] The verb for "lifted up" (Greek: ὑψωθῆναι, hypsōthēnai) reflects the double entendre at work in John's theology of the cross, for Jesus is both physically elevated from the earth at the crucifixion but also, at the same time, exalted and glorified. [46]

Sacraments Edit

Scholars disagree both on whether and how frequently John refers to sacraments, but current scholarly opinion is that there are very few such possible references, that if they exist they are limited to baptism and the Eucharist. [47] In fact, there is no institution of the Eucharist in John's account of the Last Supper (it is replaced with Jesus washing the feet of his disciples), and no New Testament text that unambiguously links baptism with rebirth. [48]

Individualism Edit

In comparison to the synoptic gospels, the fourth gospel is markedly individualistic, in the sense that it places emphasis more on the individual's relation to Jesus than on the corporate nature of the Church. [49] [50] This is largely accomplished through the consistently singular grammatical structure of various aphoristic sayings of Jesus throughout the gospel. [49] [Notes 2] Emphasis on believers coming into a new group upon their conversion is conspicuously absent from John, [49] and there is a theme of "personal coinherence", that is, the intimate personal relationship between the believer and Jesus in which the believer "abides" in Jesus and Jesus in the believer. [50] [49] [Notes 3] The individualistic tendencies of John could potentially give rise to a realized eschatology achieved on the level of the individual believer this realized eschatology is not, however, to replace "orthodox", futurist eschatological expectations, but is to be "only [their] correlative." [51]

John the Baptist Edit

John's account of the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic gospels. In this gospel, John is not called "the Baptist." [52] The Baptist's ministry overlaps with that of Jesus his baptism of Jesus is not explicitly mentioned, but his witness to Jesus is unambiguous. [52] The evangelist almost certainly knew the story of John's baptism of Jesus and he makes a vital theological use of it. [53] He subordinates the Baptist to Jesus, perhaps in response to members of the Baptist's sect who regarded the Jesus movement as an offshoot of their movement. [54]

In John's gospel, Jesus and his disciples go to Judea early in Jesus' ministry before John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed by Herod. He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically accurate information. [55] According to the biblical historians at the Jesus Seminar, John likely had a larger presence in the public mind than Jesus. [56]

Gnosticism Edit

In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars, primarily including Rudolph Bultmann, have forcefully argued that the Gospel of John has elements in common with Gnosticism. [54] Christian Gnosticism did not fully develop until the mid-2nd century, and so 2nd-century Proto-Orthodox Christians concentrated much effort in examining and refuting it. [57] To say John's gospel contained elements of Gnosticism is to assume that Gnosticism had developed to a level that required the author to respond to it. [58] Bultmann, for example, argued that the opening theme of the Gospel of John, the pre-existing Logos, along with John's duality of light versus darkness in his Gospel were originally Gnostic themes that John adopted. Other scholars (e.g., Raymond E. Brown) have argued that the pre-existing Logos theme arises from the more ancient Jewish writings in the eighth chapter of the Book of Proverbs, and was fully developed as a theme in Hellenistic Judaism by Philo Judaeus. [59] The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran verified the Jewish nature of these concepts. [60] April DeConick has suggested reading John 8:56 in support of a Gnostic theology, [61] however recent scholarship has cast doubt on her reading. [62]

Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from the way non-Gnostics did. [63] Gnosticism taught that salvation came from gnosis, secret knowledge, and Gnostics did not see Jesus as a savior but a revealer of knowledge. [64] Barnabas Lindars asserts that the gospel teaches that salvation can only be achieved through revealed wisdom, specifically belief in (literally belief into) Jesus. [65]

Raymond Brown contends that "The Johannine picture of a savior who came from an alien world above, who said that neither he nor those who accepted him were of this world, [66] and who promised to return to take them to a heavenly dwelling [67] could be fitted into the gnostic world picture (even if God's love for the world in John 3:16 [68] could not)." [69] It has been suggested that similarities between John's gospel and Gnosticism may spring from common roots in Jewish Apocalyptic literature. [70]

Synoptic gospels and Pauline literature Edit

The Gospel of John is significantly different from the synoptic gospels in the selection of its material, its theological emphasis, its chronology, and literary style, with some of its discrepancies amounting to contradictions. [71] The following are some examples of their differences in just one area, that of the material they include in their narratives: [72]

Material found in the Synoptics but absent from John Material found in John but absent from the Synoptics
Narrative parables Symbolic discourses
The Kingdom of God Teaching on eternal life
The end-time (or Olivet) discourse Emphasis on realized eschatology
The Sermon of the Mount and Lord's Prayer Jesus's "farewell discourse"
The baptism of Jesus by John Interaction between Jesus and John
The institution of the Lord's Supper Jesus as the "bread of heaven"
The Transfiguration of Jesus Scenes in the upper room
The Temptation of Jesus by Satan Satan as Jesus's antagonist working through Judas
Exorcism of demons No demon exorcisms

In the Synoptics, the ministry of Jesus takes a single year, but in John it takes three, as evidenced by references to three Passovers. Events are not all in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is different, as is the time of Jesus' anointing in Bethany and the cleansing of the Temple, which occurs in the beginning of Jesus' ministry rather than near its end. [73]

Many incidents from John, such as the wedding in Cana, the encounter of Jesus with the Samaritan woman at the well, and the raising of Lazarus, are not paralleled in the synoptics, and most scholars believe the author drew these from an independent source called the "signs gospel", the speeches of Jesus from a second "discourse" source, [74] [19] and the prologue from an early hymn. [75] The gospel makes extensive use of the Jewish scriptures: [74] John quotes from them directly, references important figures from them, and uses narratives from them as the basis for several of the discourses. The author was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the Logos of the prologue (the Word that is with God from the beginning of creation), for example, was derived from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek philosophers, John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to Greco-Roman mystery cults, and John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic beliefs. [76]

John lacks scenes from the Synoptics such as Jesus' baptism, [77] the calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, and the Transfiguration. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the Synoptics, including Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding at Cana, the resurrection of Lazarus, Jesus washing the feet of his disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem. [73]

In the fourth gospel, Jesus' mother Mary, while frequently mentioned, is never identified by name. [78] [79] John does assert that Jesus was known as the "son of Joseph" in 6:42. [80] For John, Jesus' town of origin is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God the Father. [81]

While John makes no direct mention of Jesus' baptism, [77] [73] he does quote John the Baptist's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit as a dove, as happens at Jesus' baptism in the Synoptics. [82] [83] Major synoptic speeches of Jesus are absent, including the Sermon on the Mount and the Olivet Discourse, [84] and the exorcisms of demons are never mentioned as in the Synoptics. [77] [85] John never lists all of the Twelve Disciples and names at least one disciple, Nathanael, whose name is not found in the Synoptics. Thomas is given a personality beyond a mere name, described as "Doubting Thomas". [86]

Jesus is identified with the Word ("Logos"), and the Word is identified with theos ("god" in Greek) [87] no such identification is made in the Synoptics. [88] In Mark, Jesus urges his disciples to keep his divinity secret, but in John he is very open in discussing it, even referring to himself as "I AM", the title God gives himself in Exodus at his self-revelation to Moses. In the Synoptics, the chief theme is the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven (the latter specifically in Matthew), while John's theme is Jesus as the source of eternal life and the Kingdom is only mentioned twice. [73] [85] In contrast to the synoptic expectation of the Kingdom (using the term parousia, meaning "coming"), John presents a more individualistic, realized eschatology. [89] [Notes 4]

In the Synoptics, quotations from Jesus are usually in the form of short, pithy sayings in John, longer quotations are often given. The vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in John, Jesus does not work "miracles", but "signs" which unveil his divine identity. [73] Most scholars consider John not to contain any parables. Rather it contains metaphorical stories or allegories, such as those of the Good Shepherd and of the True Vine, in which each individual element corresponds to a specific person, group, or thing. Other scholars consider stories like the childbearing woman [91] or the dying grain [92] to be parables. [Notes 5]

According to the Synoptics, the arrest of Jesus was a reaction to the cleansing of the temple, while according to John it was triggered by the raising of Lazarus. [73] The Pharisees, portrayed as more uniformly legalistic and opposed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, are instead portrayed as sharply divided they debate frequently in John's accounts. Some, such as Nicodemus, even go so far as to be at least partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the tenets of their system of belief. [93]

In place of the communal emphasis of the Pauline literature, John stresses the personal relationship of the individual to God. [94]

Johannine literature Edit

The Gospel of John and the three Johannine epistles exhibit strong resemblances in theology and style the Book of Revelation has also been traditionally linked with these, but differs from the gospel and letters in style and even theology. [95] The letters were written later than the gospel, and while the gospel reflects the break between the Johannine Christians and the Jewish synagogue, in the letters the Johannine community itself is disintegrating ("They went out from us, but they were not of us for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us but they went out. " - 1 John 2:19). [96] This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross. [97] The epistles argue against this view, stressing the eternal existence of the Son of God, the salvific nature of his life and death, and the other elements of the gospel's "high" Christology. [97]

Historical reliability Edit

The teachings of Jesus found in the synoptic gospels are very different from those recorded in John, and since the 19th century scholars have almost unanimously accepted that these Johannine discourses are less likely than the synoptic parables to be historical, and were likely written for theological purposes. [98] By the same token, scholars usually agree that John is not entirely without historical value: certain sayings in John are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts, his representation of the topography around Jerusalem is often superior to that of the synoptics, his testimony that Jesus was executed before, rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and his presentation of Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their synoptic parallels. [99]

The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in productions, skits, plays, and Passion Plays, as well as in film. The most recent such portrayal is the 2014 film The Gospel of John, directed by David Batty and narrated by David Harewood and Brian Cox, with Selva Rasalingam as Jesus. The 2003 film The Gospel of John was directed by Philip Saville and narrated by Christopher Plummer, with Henry Ian Cusick as Jesus.

Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve Warner's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments taken from the Book of Signs. Additionally, some composers have made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the gospel, most notably the one composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, although some verses are borrowed from Matthew.

  1. ^ The declarations are:
    • "I am the bread of life" [6:35]
    • "I am the light of the world" [8:12]
    • "I am the gate for the sheep" [10:7]
    • "I am the good shepherd" [10:11]
    • "I am the resurrection and the life" [11:25]
    • "I am the way and the truth and the life" [14:6]
    • "I am the true vine" [15:1] .
  2. ^Bauckham 2015 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBauckham2015 (help) contrasts John's consistent use of the third person singular ("The one who. " "If anyone. " "Everyone who. " "Whoever. " "No one. ") with the alternative third person plural constructions he could have used instead ("Those who. " "All those who. " etc.). He also notes that the sole exception occurs in the prologue, serving a narrative purpose, whereas the later aphorisms serve a "paraenetic function".
  3. ^ See John 6:56 , 10:14–15 , 10:38 , and 14:10, 17, 20, and 23 .
  4. ^Realized eschatology is a Christian eschatological theory popularized by C. H. Dodd (1884–1973). It holds that the eschatological passages in the New Testament do not refer to future events, but instead to the ministry of Jesus and his lasting legacy. [90] In other words, it holds that Christian eschatological expectations have already been realized or fulfilled.
  5. ^ See Zimmermann 2015, pp. 333–60.

Citations Edit

  1. ^Lindars 1990, p. 53.
  2. ^ abWitherington 2004, p. 83.
  3. ^ abcEdwards 2015, p. 171.
  4. ^Burkett 2002, p. 215.
  5. ^ abLincoln 2005, p. 18.
  6. ^Hendricks 2007, p. 147.
  7. ^Reddish 2011, pp. 13.
  8. ^Burkett 2002, p. 214.
  9. ^ abcReddish 2011, p. 41.
  10. ^Bynum 2012, p. 15.
  11. ^Harris 2006, p. 479.
  12. ^O'Day 1998, p. 381.
  13. ^Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 41.
  14. ^Kelly 2012, p. 115.
  15. ^Eve 2016, p. 135.
  16. ^Porter & Fay 2018, p. 41.
  17. ^Reddish 2011, p. 187-188.
  18. ^Lincoln 2005, pp. 29–30.
  19. ^ abcFredriksen 2008, p. unpaginated.
  20. ^Valantasis, Bleyle & Haugh 2009, p. 14.
  21. ^Yu Chui Siang Lau 2010, p. 159.
  22. ^Menken 1996, p. 11-13.
  23. ^Lamb 2014, p. 2.
  24. ^Hurtado 2005, p. 70.
  25. ^Köstenberger 2006, p. 72.
  26. ^Lamb 2014, p. 2-3.
  27. ^Bynum 2012, p. 7,12.
  28. ^Attridge 2006, p. 125.
  29. ^Moloney 1998, p. 23.
  30. ^Bauckham 2008, p. 126.
  31. ^Aune 2003, p. 245.
  32. ^Aune 2003, p. 246.
  33. ^ abVan der Watt 2008, p. 10.
  34. ^ abKruse 2004, p. 17.
  35. ^Hurtado 2005, pp. 53.
  36. ^Hillar 2012, pp. 132.
  37. ^Bible, John 5:18
  38. ^Hurtado 2005, p. 51.
  39. ^Harris 2006, pp. 302–10.
  40. ^Greene 2004, p. p37-.
  41. ^Harris 2006, pp. 302–310.
  42. ^Ronning 2010.
  43. ^Bible cf. Mark 10:45, Romans 3:25
  44. ^BibleMark 8:31, 9:31, 10:33–34 and pars.
  45. ^Bible,John 3:14, 8:28, 12:32
  46. ^Kysar 2007, p. 49–54. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKysar2007 (help)
  47. ^Bauckham 2015, p. 83-84. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBauckham2015 (help)
  48. ^Bauckham 2015, p. 89,94. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBauckham2015 (help)
  49. ^ abcdBauckham 2015. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBauckham2015 (help)
  50. ^ abMoule 1962, p. 172.
  51. ^Moule 1962, p. 174.
  52. ^ abCross & Livingstone 2005.
  53. ^Barrett 1978, p. 16.
  54. ^ abHarris 2006.
  55. ^Funk 1998, pp. 365–440.
  56. ^Funk 1998, p. 268.
  57. ^Olson 1999, p. 36.
  58. ^Kysar 2005, pp. 88ff.
  59. ^Brown 1997.
  60. ^Charlesworth 2010, p. 42.
  61. ^DeConick 2016, pp. 13-.
  62. ^Llewelyn, Robinson & Wassell 2018, pp. 14–23.
  63. ^Most 2005, pp. 121ff.
  64. ^Skarsaune 2008, pp. 247ff.
  65. ^Lindars 1990, p. 62.
  66. ^Bible, John 17:14
  67. ^Bible, John 14:2–3
  68. ^Bible, John 3:16
  69. ^Brown 1997, p. 375.
  70. ^Kovacs 1995.
  71. ^Burge 2014, pp. 236–237.
  72. ^Köstenberger 2013, p. unpaginated.
  73. ^ abcdefBurge 2014, pp. 236–37.
  74. ^ abReinhartz 2017, p. 168.
  75. ^Perkins 1993, p. 109.
  76. ^Reinhartz 2017, p. 171.
  77. ^ abcFunk & Hoover 1993, pp. 1–30.
  78. ^Williamson 2004, p. 265.
  79. ^Michaels 1971, p. 733.
  80. ^BibleJohn 6:42
  81. ^Fredriksen 2008.
  82. ^Zanzig 1999, p. 118.
  83. ^Brown 1988, pp. 25-27.
  84. ^Pagels 2003.
  85. ^ abThompson 2006, p. 184.
  86. ^Walvoord & Zuck 1985, p. 313.
  87. ^Ehrman 2005.
  88. ^Carson 1991, p. 117.
  89. ^Moule 1962, pp. 172–74.
  90. ^Ladd & Hagner 1993, p. 56.
  91. ^Bible, 16:21
  92. ^Bible, 12:24
  93. ^Neusner 2003, p. 8.
  94. ^Bauckham 2015, p. unpaginated. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBauckham2015 (help)
  95. ^Van der Watt 2008, p. 1.
  96. ^Moloney 1998, p. 4.
  97. ^ abWatson 2014, p. 112.
  98. ^Sanders 1995, pp. 57, 70–71.
  99. ^Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 36–37.

Sources Edit

  • Attridge, Harold W. (2006). "The Literary Evidence for Johannine Christianity". In Mitchell, Margaret M. Young, Frances M. Bowie, K. Scott (eds.). Cambridge History of Christianity. Volume 1, Origins to Constantine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521812399 . |volume= has extra text (help)
  • Aune, David E. (2003). "John, Gospel of". The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature and Rhetoric. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN978-0-664-21917-8 .
  • Barrett, C. K. (1978). The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN978-0-664-22180-5 .
  • Barton, Stephen C. (2008). Bauckham, Richard Mosser, Carl (eds.). The Gospel of John and Christian Theology. Eerdmans. ISBN9780802827173 .
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  • Chilton, Bruce Neusner, Jacob (2006). Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs. Routledge. ISBN978-1-134-81497-8 .
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  • DeConick, April D (2016). "Who is Hiding in the Gospel of John? Reconceptualizing Johannine Theology and the Roots of Gnosticism". In DeConick, April D Adamson, Grant (eds.). Histories of the Hidden God: Concealment and Revelation in Western Gnostic, Esoteric, and Mystical Traditions. Routledge. ISBN978-1-134-93599-4 .
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  • Dunn, James D. G. (1992). The Question of Anti-Semitism in the New Testament. ISBN978-0-8028-4498-9 .
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  • Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-06-073817-4 .
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  • Eve, Eric (2016). Writing the Gospels: Composition and Memory. SPCK. ISBN9780281073412 .
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  • Funk, Robert Walter Hoover, Roy W. (1993). The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus : New Translation and Commentary. Macmillan. ISBN978-0-02-541949-0 – via Jesus Seminar.
  • Funk, Robert Walter (1998). The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN978-0-06-062978-6 – via Jesus Seminar.
  • Greene, Colin J. D. (2004). Christology in Culture Perspective: Marking Out the Horizons. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN978-0-8028-2792-0 .
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  • Hillar, Marian (2012). From Logos to Trinity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN9781139505147 .
  • Hurtado, Larry W. (2005). How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God?: Historical Questions about Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN978-0-8028-2861-3 .
  • Keener, Craig S. (2019). Christobiography: Memory, History, and the Reliability of the Gospels. Eerdmans. ISBN9781467456760 .
  • Kelly, Joseph F. (2012). History and Heresy: How Historical Forces Can Create Doctrinal Conflicts. Liturgical Press. ISBN9780814659991 .
  • Köstenberger, Andreas (2006). "Destruction of the Temple and the Composition of the Fourth Gospel". In Lierman, John (ed.). Challenging Perspectives on the Gospel of John. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN9783161491139 .
  • Köstenberger, Andreas (2013). Encountering John. Baker Academic. ISBN9781441244857 .
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  • Kovacs, Judith L. (1995). "Now Shall the Ruler of This World Be Driven Out: Jesus' Death as Cosmic Battle in John 12:20–36". Journal of Biblical Literature. 114 (2): 227–47. doi:10.2307/3266937. JSTOR3266937.
  • Kruse, Colin G. (2004). The Gospel According to John: An Introduction and Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN9780802827715 .
  • Kysar, Robert (2005). Voyages with John: Charting the Fourth Gospel. Baylor University Press. ISBN978-1-932792-43-0 .
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  • Kysar, Robert (2007). "The Dehistoricizing of the Gospel of John". In Anderson, Paul N. Just, Felix Thatcher, Tom (eds.). John, Jesus, and History, Volume 1: Critical Appraisals of Critical Views. Society of Biblical Literature Symposium series. 44. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN978-1-58983-293-0 .
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  • Perkins, Pheme (1993). Gnosticism and the New Testament . Fortress Press. ISBN9781451415971 .
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  • Porter, Stanley E. Fay, Ron C. (2018). "Introduction". In Porter, Stanley E. Fay, Ron C. (eds.). The Gospel of John in Modern Interpretation. Kregel Academic. ISBN9780825445101 .
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  • Reinhartz, Adele (2017). "The Gospel According to John". In Levine, Amy-Jill Brettler, Marc Z. (eds.). The Jewish Annotated New Testament (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN9780190461850 .
  • Ronning, John L. (2010). The Jewish Targums and John's Logos Theology. Hendrickson. ISBN978-1-59856-306-1 .
  • Sanders, E. P. (1995). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin UK. ISBN978-0-14-192822-7 .
  • Senior, Donald (1991). The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of John. Passion of Jesus Series. 4. Liturgical Press. ISBN978-0-8146-5462-0 .
  • Skarsaune, Oskar (2008). In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity. InterVarsity Press. ISBN978-0-8308-2670-4 .
  • Theissen, Gerd Merz, Annette (1998) [1996]. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Fortress Press. ISBN978-1-4514-0863-8 .
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  • Van der Watt, Jan (2008). An Introduction to the Johannine Gospel and Letters. Bloomsbury. ISBN978-0-567-52174-3 .
  • Walvoord, John F. Zuck, Roy B, eds. (1985). The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. David C Cook. ISBN978-0-88207-813-7 . *
  • Watson, Duane (2014). "Christology". In Evans, Craig (ed.). The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Routledge. ISBN9781317722243 .
  • Williamson, Lamar, Jr. (2004). Preaching the Gospel of John: Proclaiming the Living Word. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN978-0-664-22533-9 .
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  • Yu Chui Siang Lau, Theresa (2010). "The Gospels and the Old Testament". In Harding, Mark Nobbs, Alanna (eds.). The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition. Eerdmans. ISBN9780802833181 .
  • Zanzig, Thomas (1999). Jesus of History, Christ of Faith. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN978-0-88489-530-5 .
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Selected Special Collections

T he holdings of Americana in the Library of Congress owes much of their strength to the collecting zeal of Peter Force (1790-1868). In the course of preparing his "Documentary History of the American Revolution," a compilation better known today as American Archives, this Washington publisher and politician assembled what was probably the largest private collection of printed and manuscript sources on American history in the United States. The Peter Force Library was purchased by act of Congress in 1867. In one stroke, the Library of Congress established its first major collections of eighteenth-century American newspapers, incunabula, early American imprints, manuscripts, and rare maps and atlases. Although no complete inventory survives, many of the approximately 22,500 Force volumes are recorded without source designation in the Catalogue of Books added to the Library of Congress from December 1, 1866 to December 1, 1867.

Incunabula, pre-1801 American imprints, and other rare publications from the Force Library have been absorbed into the collections of the Rare Book and Special Collections Division. The Division holdings include important compilations of pamphlets that were assembled by such collectors as William Duane, Ebenezer Hazard, Jacob Bailey Moore, Israel Thorndike, and Oliver Wolcott. It is estimated that over 8,000 of the approximately 40,000 pamphlets purchased from Force were printed before 1800.

Blanchard, Jean-Pierre, 1753-1809. Journal of My Forty-Fifth Ascension: Being the First Performed in America, on the Ninth of January, 1793. Philadelphia: Printed by Charles Cist . 1793.
Page Turner - Bibliographic Information

Cusick, David, Sketches of Ancient history of the Six Nations. Tuscarora Village, Lewiston, Niagra Co., [Lockport. N.Y. Cooley & Lothrop, printers] 1828.
Page Turner - Bibliographic Information

Joutel, Henri, 1640?-1735, Journal Historique du Dernier Voyage que feu M. de LaSale Fit dans le Golfe de Mexique, pour Trouver l'Embouchure, & le Cours de la Riviere de Missicipi, Nommeé à Present la Riviere de Saint Loüis, qui Traverse la Louisiane, Paris: Chez Estienne Robinot, Libraire . 1713.
Page Turner - Bibliographic Information

Thevet, André, 1502-1590. Les Singvlaritez de la France Antarctiqve, Avtrement Nommée Amerique: & de Plusieurs terres & Isles Decouuertes de Nostre Temps. Par F. André Theuet, Natif d'Angoulesme. A Paris, Chez les heritiers de Maurice de la Porte, 1557.
Page Turner - Bibliographic Information

Uring, Nathaniel. A Relation of the Late Intended Settlement of the Islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent, in America in Right of the Duke of Montagu, and Orders, in the Year 1722. London, Printed for J. Peele, 1725.
Page Turner - Bibliographic Information


Michael p Cusick

Lord Jesus Christ, we pray for all our Vietnam War heroes who are now in Heaven.

We will always remember and honor them. They are great heroes and we love them.

Lord, continue to bestow upon them the great honor, respect, and love that they deserve.

Lord, we pray for the family members of these heroes. Grant them peace, Lord, for they are great American heroes also.

Comfort these family members, and provide all that they need.

We love these family members, Lord.

Let them feel our love, and let them feel your love, Lord.

Shine your love upon them.

Let them feel your presence in all that they do.

Lord, we pray for our hero Vietnam War veterans.

These heroes are very special people and are among the greatest war heroes in American history.

Lord, help any of our Vietnam veterans who are suffering PTSD, anxiety, depression, or any other problem.

And walk with our Vietnam veterans wherever they may go, and let them always feel your presence.

Lord, we pray that our Vietnam veterans receive ALL of the honor, respect, and love that they deserve.

Remind these Vietnam veterans that they are heroes.

Lord, we pray that everyone in pain because of the Vietnam War is healed.

May you continue to bless our fallen heroes, their family members, and our Vietnam veterans.


Peter A. Cusick

Peter A. Cusick, 68, of Dartmouth, died Sunday, July 8, 2018 at his home unexpectedly. He was the husband of the late Sandra (Freienbergs) Cusick.

Born in Boston, he was the son of the late Gerard F. and Jacqueline (Saunders) Cusick. A graduate of Old Rochester Regional High School in 1969, he previously lived in Marion and Rochester before moving to Dartmouth. He was a U.S. Army veteran and honorably discharged in 1972.

Mr. Cusick worked as a chemical processor for The Polaroid Corp. in New Bedford.

Survivors include his daughter, Laura Harris and her husband David of E. Providence, RI his siblings, Philip P. Cusick of S. Dartmouth, Michael J. Cusick of Fairhaven, Jacqueline A. Avery, and Regina Halpern both of Kennesaw, GA, and Judith Niemi of Wareham and his grandchildren, Josh, and Kayla Harris. He was predeceased by his daughter, the late Bonnie Lee Cusick, and his brother the late Gerard F. Cusick, Jr.

Funeral services and burial will be private.

In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory may be made to Cape & Islands Veterans Outreach Center of Hyannis, MA.


Minooka (PA) Memories


I am the granddaughter of Michael Walsh and Sarah Burke, my father was one of the twelve Walsh children, all born and raised in Minooka.

I am familiar with your Walsh branch from my genealogy research. Although I have two Walsh lines in my family, I am not related to your Walsh line. Was one of the Walshes an English teacher at Minooka H.S.?

Is there any way to find out the names of Catholic churchs located in Minooka in 1893? my great grandparents, Michael McGrath and Mary Ellen Oakley, were married there on Sept. 4, 1893. Michael was born in Galway, Ireland and emigrated to Old Forge to work in the coal mines Mary Ellen's parents came from Ireland in 1871 and lived in Scranton for a while before movingto Old Forge. I beleive some ancestors are buried in Minooka as well. Thanks.

Ellen, There were only two Catholic churches in Minooka: St. Joseph's which was largely attended by the Irish of Minooka and the Irish and Italians of South Scranton. The other was St. Mary's in Greenwood where the Polish worshiped. St. Joseph's has records of marriages, but I'm not sure of their start date. I'd suggest you put the question up on the Minooka Facebook page.
https://www.facebook.com/groups/66867538643/

My father, Jim Hart (B: 10/1/1910 D: 10/10/1963) was born in Minooka. I know he played baseball there. I'm not sure what years. I interested in any team photos.

Thanks for posting the stories of Minooka. My grandparents were Patrick and Mary Higgins. I enjoyed reading stories of my other ancestors, Festus Higgins and Rev Cusick.

My Great Grandparents were Patrick and Mary Higgins! Their son Patrick was my grandfather. Which lineage does your family tree follow? I have a picture of Mary Higgins with Father Peter Cusick and her sister Bridget. I'm in the process of scanning them. Reply if you'd like a copy of the picture.

Your Grandfather is My Uncle Patrick from Detroit,Mi.
My Dad is Gerald Higgins your Grandfathers brother.
I would like the picture of Mary Higgins and Father Cusick.
Thank you. Jerry Higgins.

My grandparents were also Patrick and Mary Higgins.
The first generation of their family has two'
children still living:Jane Murray Burke and Jerry
Higgins. Father Peter Cusick and my Uncle were outstanding men.

My Great Grandparents were Patrick and Mary Higgins! Their son Patrick was my grandfather. Which lineage does your family tree follow? I have a picture of Mary Higgins with Father Peter Cusick and her sister Bridget. I'm in the process of scanning them. Reply if you'd like a copy of the picture.

Why has my comment been canceled


Fr. Cusick, Women’s Modesty, and Confronting the Mob

Thus reads the tweet heard ’round the world, posted by respected priest and veteran Fr. Kevin M. Cusick:

“Ladies, a priest I know was forced on Sunday to ask a woman at Mass to cover her shoulders. Please help the priest to protect the purity of the men at holy Mass by choosing to dress modestly. The alternative is awkward for all involved. Thank you.”

So you have this hope that the priest — your priest, you’ve developed a sense of loyalty towards him, even from afar, in this little battle you’ve followed him into — will choose to fight. To make no apologies, maybe even double down, go on the offensive for once, because you know in your gut that capitulation breeds contempt, and the Catholic Church has been capitulating for decades. You’ve been played so many times, and finally, you’re ready to defend the faith in a way that actually works, and you want to give up because you know that those who actually have the authority to show strength are always going to choose the false high road. The mob doesn’t care about your civility or your compromises. The mob feeds off weakness, uses your inclination to charity, forgiveness, compassion to goad you into “niceness”, injustice, and indifference.

The story ends as you knew it would. Fr. Cusick left Twitter of his own accord. He wrote an article in The Wanderer explaining why. This part was telling:

The unfortunate turn of phrase, in which I implied that men’s chastity needed to be defended, was written with the best of intentions. In no way did I mean to say that men are not responsible for, or capable of, self-control. They are so capable and everything possible should be done to avoid implying otherwise. In the Church we have our own tragic history of failure to intervene and prevent crimes against the young and women. We must strive to ensure a consistent witness to the need to better protect individuals of all ages, especially children, from sexual predators. I always hope this goes without saying, but I am afraid we may not be there yet. Men and women both must exercise self-control and respect in their mutual relations.

Context is important. That was lacking in part due to the very limited number of words available for expression on that platform and my choice to not create a thread for expanding the discussion’s breadth. I was speaking only to the norms of dress within the Traditional Latin Mass community. I have absolutely no opinion on how women choose to dress. That’s their business. I’ve always felt that way. It would be very inappropriate for a priest to touch on that subject except in the one specific case I highlighted.

Here’s where I myself am tempted — tempted to qualify what I’m saying, tempted to remind everyone reading, and perhaps even Fr. Cusick himself, that I think he has done a lot of good for tradition and a lot of good on Twitter. That I’ve prayed many rosaries for him in this ordeal. That I’m not saying I know for a fact he made the wrong decision, that I’m not saying there is no instance where we are only casting pearls before swine, sorry if I offend, etc., etc., etc. Tempted to remind everyone that I’m just a little laywoman trying to figure out these situations one at a time, and that I may make a totally different call in a seemingly identical case.

So here’s what I’ll say, as though I’m thinking only of what God wants of me, what the truth is, because as much as I strive for that, we all know I fail more often than not:

Father Cusick, stop capitulating. Stop backing down from what the Church teaches, because you know as well as I do that a spiritual father has a responsibility to advise and to encourage modesty among the souls in his care, male and female, both in front of the Tabernacle and out in the world. Stop giving credence to this ridiculous media fabrication that the sex abuse crisis is primarily about children and not about post-pubescent homosexuals. Stop saying it’s up to the female parishioners at your parish to choose a dress code, when it is you who bring Christ to them. Stop furthering this ridiculous idea that women do not have an obligation to aid their brothers in chastity. In case you’ve forgotten, the answer to Cain’s question, “Am I my brother’s keeper?,” is yes. Above all, I beg you, stop pretending that running from the cross is, or ever could be, good for the Church.

The mob isn’t going away, and I suggest we all start praying for moral courage and the fortitude to bear these little white martyrdoms. It’s only by God’s grace and Our Lady’s intercession that we’re not facing imminent red martyrdom yet. Somehow, I don’t think many of us will be staring down a firing squad with a defiant “Praise to Thee, Lord Jesus Christ” if we can’t even hold fast against a few bad days on social media.

Stefanie Lozinski is an unexpected Catholic convert from a (very lapsed) Greek Orthodox background. The history of the Crusades played a positive role in her faith journey, and she believes firmly that the rosary will save the world. Readers can connect with her on Facebook and follow her on Twitter @StefMLozinski.