Which were the (militarily) strongest countries of the Holy Roman Empire?

Which were the (militarily) strongest countries of the Holy Roman Empire?

The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, Roman or an empire, but it was still a strong power despite its infighting. What were the strongest countries towards the end of the "empire"?


Austria and Prussia. They were the only major powers during this time which were also part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other countries like bavaria, saxony or Hessia were minor powers.

Here is an "indirect" source: The site shows the major armies of the involved countries of the Napoleonic Wars. Two of them (Austria and Prussia) are part of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE). If there were other strong countries within the HRE they would be listed here, also.


Societas Draconistrarum



The Order of the Dragon (Latin: Societas Draconistarum, literally "Society of the Dragonists" and "Order of the Dragon" respectively) was a monarchical chivalric order only for selected higher aristocracy and monarchs, [1] founded in 1408 by Sigismund of Luxembourg, who was then King of Hungary (r. 1387&ndash1437) and later became Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1433&ndash1437). It was fashioned after the military orders of the Crusades, requiring its initiates to defend the cross and fight the enemies of Christianity, particularly the Ottoman Empire.

The Order flourished during the first half of the 15th century, primarily in Germany and Italy. After Sigismund's death in 1437, its importance declined in Western Europe. However, after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, it continued to play a role in Hungary, Croatia, Albania, Serbia and Romania, which bore the brunt of the Ottoman incursions. The Prince of Wallachia Vlad II Dracul, the father of Vlad the Impaler, took his name from the Order of the Dragon.


Following a century and a half of growing pressure on the Roman frontier, the tribes (Vandals, Burgundians, Alans and Suevi) along the Rhine crossed the river in 407, subsequently establishing various short-lived Germanic kingdoms in parts of modern-day France and Spain.

The kingdom of the Franks however would endure, in varying shape and form, over several centuries under the dynasties of the Merovingians and Carolingians. Under Charlemagne, who subjugated Bavaria in 788 and Lower Saxony in 804 and was crowned Emperor in 800, the kingdom would span over most what is today France and Germany, forming the nucleus for both future countries.


2017 Schofield/Rothschild spree shooting – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schofield/Rothschild_shootings

The 2017 Schofield/ Rothschild shootings were a series of shootings that occurred in Marathon County, Wisconsin on March 22, 2017. The perpetrator, Nengmy Vang, upset following a dispute with his wife, fatally shot two employees at the bank where she worked, his wife’s lawyer, and a police officer.

Schopenhauer …..
……open (data set haus/houses)
for IBM and other COMPUTER EARTH
companies run by humans

….. Einstein (Data Field) field theory
Of eins …… Holstein milk cow & beef
proteins ….. protein THOUGHT molecules

… thus the PROTEIN MACHINE platform

that human live upon … for food

…… Rothschild …. Sunlight and atoms ….


EARTH government systems / systems court ….
Court factor to the
German Landgraves and
Euler → E ul → Earth underground language with e=2.718 (earth math number) …..

thus the
Landgraves equation written vertically ….

Land (earth land surface of
grass lawns, roads, buildings,
and farm corn fields)

Graves (underground
…clay → c layer –>coffin communications layer

with atomic COFFIN databases as explained by the

Egyptian BOOK of the DEAD and James Joyce
………. coffin language
……………. Finnegan’s Wake

the nonsense education system

And
pregnancy money making systems


We found at least 10 Websites Listing below when search with holy roman empire countries on Search Engine

What Countries Were in the Roman Empire

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In addition, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Iraq, Kuwait, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Lybia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were all part of the Roman Empire.

Holy Roman Empire Map, Definition, History, Capital

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Alternative Titles: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Sacrum Romanum Imperium Holy Roman Empire, German Heiliges Römisches Reich, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium, the varying complex of lands in western and central Europe ruled over first by Frankish and …

Was the Holy Roman Empire one country or many countries

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  • The “Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nationii Germaniae” (IRS= Holy Roman Empire of German Nation) was a kind of a loose confederation of dozen to hundreds of sovereign countries
  • The Kingdom of Germany was the core of this loose confederation which …

What countries were in the holy roman empire

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  • The Holy Roman Empire was a union of countries in the area of central Europe during the Middle Ages, ruled by a Roman emperor

The Holy Roman Empire Is Back! theTrumpet.com

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  • The EU has just created a constitution for the Holy Roman Empire
  • The EU is now comprised of 27 nations
  • But your Bible says it will have 10 kings
  • That means this political-religious union is about to be radically reduced.

Holy Roman Empire and similar former countries

  • The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state
  • Margravate of the Duchy of Bavaria and from 1156 an independent duchy (later archduchy) of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Heiliges Römisches Reich 962–1806).

Peace of Westphalia Definition, Map, Results

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  • The Holy Roman emperor and the Diet were left with a mere shadow of their former power
  • Not only was the central authority of the empire replaced almost entirely by the sovereignty of about 300 princes, but the power of the empire was materially weakened in other ways.

Is the EU an Attempt to Revive the Holy Roman Empire

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  • Exactly two centuries after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire—the First Reich of the German Nation—the European Union seems set to revive this ancient institution
  • 20, was the 200th anniversary of the dissolution of a remarkable institution that had dominated Europe for over a thousand years.

Holy Roman Empireball Polandball Wiki Fandom

The Holy Roman Empireball, Holy Roman Empire of the Germanic Nationball,, HREball, and Holy Roman Caesarndomball or Sacrilegious German Confederation, also known as the First German Reich, was the 1st Deutsches Reich and the legal successor of SPQRball (Unlike this imposter!

Holy Roman Empire CountryHumans Wiki Fandom

  • The Holy Roman Empire was a country that was very slightly unstable (disunity), but that didn't stop them from being a hardworking and a tenacious enemy
  • They were a loyal friend and fathered most of the states that become Germany.

The Holy Roman Empire History of Western Civilization II

  • The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806
  • The term Holy Roman Empire was not used until the 13th century and the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties.

Difference between: Rome/Roman Empire/Holy Roman Empire

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  • For your benefit mdenham2 take a look at this Wiki summary of the Holy Roman Empire, which people can either concur or disagree with
  • Personally I would only add that Charlemagne was granted the (original) title partly because the Pope wanted to try and nominate a 'Western Empire' again as the old Eastern Roman Empire (Orthodox) was still plugging away very strongly in Constantinople …

History of the Holy Roman Empire

  • The Holy Roman Empire (HRE German: Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR), Latin: Imperium Romanum Sacrum (IRS), Italian: Sacro Romano Impero (SRI)) was a German empire that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe
  • It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor.

Roman Empire CountryHumans Wiki Fandom

The Roman Empire was ancient Rome in Europe, Africa and Western Asia, that exists 27 BC to AD 476 1 Description 1.1 Appearance 1.2 Personality 1.3 Interests 1.4 Flag Meaning 2 History 2.1 A Mysterious Beginning 2.2 Republic to Empire 2.3 Pax Romana and Roman Emperors 2.4 Downfall and the split of the Empire 3 Relationship 3.1 Family 3.1.1 Today 3.2 Friends 3.3 Neutral 3.4 Enemies 4 Trivia 5

Countries of the Holy Roman Empire Quiz

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  • History Quiz / Countries of the Holy Roman Empire Random History or Country Quiz Can you name the modern countries that were part of the Holy Roman Empire? by zeppelinoid Plays Quiz Updated Dec 19, 2018
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Holy Roman Empire Start, End, Capital City and

  • The Holy Roman Empire was a large collection of thousands of political entities of many different ethnicities that existed for more than a thousand years at the heart of Europe
  • Stretching from modern-day Italy to Denmark, from France to Poland
  • The Holy Roman Empire was an important part of European history, with several countries that […]

Modern-Day Countries of the Holy Roman Empire on a Map

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  • I believe I know which map you used and it incorrectly labels Sardinia and the Teutonic Order (the area labelled part of modern-day Russia and some of the bordering areas in Poland) as part of the Holy Roman Empire
  • The HRE never reached further than Pomerania along the coast against the Baltic Sea (at least

What were the conditions of joining or leaving the Holy

  • @Voitcus Yes, and around that time the Empire more or less submitted to the facts and a) renamed itself as Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, and b) the Emperor ceased to be crowned by the Pope, thus relinquishing most universalist claims in deed if not in theory
  • – JMVanPelt May 22 '15 at 16:37

History of Holy Roman Empire COUNTRYBALLS

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  • Thank you for watching! Спасибо за просмотр! Díky za sledování! =====Музыка | Music | Hudba :1
  • Jingle Bells (Instrumental Jazz

Holy Roman Empire Religion and culture

  • The Holy Roman Empire is a unique union between Teutonic countries
  • The Empire consists of the Emperor, seven electors and a number of teutonic princes
  • The electors elect the Emperor and he gains access to special options
  • Although the Empire is a Union, of a kind, it is more of a loose partnership of autonomous states than the actual country.

How to Join the Holy Roman Empire in Europa Universalis 4

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  • How to Join the Holy Roman Empire in Europa Universalis 4
  • Europa Universalis 4 is one of the most rewarding games you can play
  • It certainly looks daunting from the outside because it requires you to balance diplomacy, combat, and the instincts of a true world leader
  • But once you’re firing on all cylinders, the game experience is unforgettable.

Holy Roman Empire Country Tag EU4 Cheats

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  • The country tag for Holy Roman Empire in EU4 is:
  • The command to play as Holy Roman Empire in EU4 is:
  • The command to kill the ruler of Holy Roman Empire is:
  • The cheat to add Holy Roman Empire to your country's interest is:

The Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire

  • (The first Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III, on horseback
  • By Crispijn van de Passe (I), 1604
  • Image courtesy of the Rijksmuseum) Many (but not all) Habsburg lands were also part of the Holy Roman Empire and many (but not all) territories within the Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire Facts for Kids KidzSearch.com

  • The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire
  • The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), occasionally but unofficially referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a group of regions and free cities in central Europe which all came under the rule of an

TheTrumpet.com World News, Economics and Analysis Based

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  • Among historians, it is generally accepted that the Holy Roman Empire was the cyclical reincarnation of the ancient Roman Empire, presided over in each instance by the Catholic Church
  • Oxford Dictionary defines it as the “empire set up in Western Europe following the …

Countries of the Holy Roman Empire by Flag Quiz

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Tags: Country Quiz, Flags Quiz, World Quiz, Empires Civilizations, Holy Roman, Holy Roman Empire Top Quizzes Today Find the US States - No Outlines Minefield 19,055

Tudor England’s Relations with Spain, The Holy Roman

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WITH SPAIN, THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE LOW COUNTRIES[1] The expansion and then fragmentation of the Habsburg domains during the sixteenth century presented English diplomacy with its greatest challenges.[2] The union of the Netherlands, the Spanish kingdoms and the Holy Roman Empire in the ‘empire’ of Charles V in


Comital titles in different European languages

The following lists are originally based on a Glossary on Heraldica.org by Alexander Krischnig. The male form is followed by the female, and when available, by the territorial circumscription.

Etymological derivations from the Latin comes






















































































































Language
Male title
Female title / Spouse
Territory

Albanian
Kont
Konteshë
Konte

Armenian
Կոմս (Koms)
Կոմսուհի (Komsuhi)


Bulgarian
Кмет (Kmet), present meaning: mayor medieval (9th-century) Комит (Komit): hereditary provincial ruler
Кметица (Kmetitsa), woman mayor / Кметша (Kmetsha), mayor's wife
Кметство (Kmetstvo) medieval Комитат (Komitat)

Catalan
Comte
Comtessa
Comtat

English

Count (applies to title granted by monarchies other than the British where Earl applies)
Countess (even where Earl applies)

Earldom for an Earl Countship or county for a count (County persists in English-speaking countries as a sub-national administrative division)

French
Comte
Comtesse
Comté

Hungarian
Vikomt
Vikomtessz
Actually meaning viscount. These forms are now archaic or literary Gróf is used instead.

Irish
Cunta
Cuntaois
Honorary title only.

Italian
Conte
Contessa
Contea, Contado

Greek
Κόμης (Kómēs)
Κόμησσα (Kómēssa)
Κομητεία (Komēteía) in the Ionian Islands the respective Italianate terms Kóntes, Kontéssa were used instead

Latin (feudal jargon, not classical)

Comes
Comitissa
Comitatus

Maltese
Konti
Kontessa


Monegasque
Conte
Contessa


Portuguese

Conde
Condessa
Condado

Romanian
Conte
Contesă
Comitat

Romansh
Cont
Contessa


Spanish

Conde
Condesa
Condado

Turkish
Kont
Kontes
Kontluk

Etymological parallels with the German Graf (some approximate)

Komtesse (Unmarried daughter of a count.)

Compound and related titles

Apart from all these, a few unusual titles have been of comital rank, not necessarily to remain there.



  • Dauphin (English: Dolphin Spanish: Delfín Italian: Delfino Portuguese: Delfim Latin: Delphinus) was a multiple (though rare) comital title in southern France, used by the Dauphins of Vienne and Auvergne, before 1349 when it became the title of the heir to the French throne. The Dauphin was the lord of the province still known as the région Dauphiné.

  • Conde-Duque "Count-Duke" is a rare title used in Spain, notably by Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares who had inherited the title of count of Olivares, but being created Duke of Sanlucar la Mayor by King Philip IV of Spain begged permission to preserve his inherited title in combination with the new honour—according to a practice almost unique in Spanish history logically the incumbent ranks as Duke (higher than Count) just as he would when simply concatenating both titles.

  • Conde-Barão 'Count-Baron' is a rare title used in Portugal, notably by D. Luís Lobo da Silveira, 7th Baron of Alvito, who received the title of Count of Oriola in 1653 from King John IV of Portugal. His palace in Lisbon still exists, located in a square named after him (Largo do Conde-Barão).

  • Archcount is a very rare title, etymologically analogous to archduke, apparently never recognized officially, used by or for:

  • the count of Flanders (an original pairie of the French realm in present Belgium, very rich, once expected to be raised to the rank of kingdom) the informal, rather descriptive use on account of the countship's de facto importance is rather analogous to the unofficial epithet Grand Duc de l'Occident (before Grand duke became a formal title) for the even wealthier Duke of Burgundy

  • at least one Count of Burgundy (i.e. Freigraf of Franche-Comté)

  • Talk:Liège Revolution

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    Reference named "ReferenceA":

    • From French Revolution: Censer and Hunt, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution, 4.
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    I apologize if any of the above are effectively identical I am just a simple computer program, so I can't determine whether minor differences are significant or not. AnomieBOT ⚡ 14:43, 3 November 2010 (UTC)

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    Bible Commentaries

    The Traditional View maintains that the Book of Daniel was written by Daniel himself, and is therefore a contemporary record of the events which it records. This view, though it was challenged by Porphyry the Neo-Platonist (died A.D. 303), practically held the field till the end of the eighteenth century, when Corrodi boldly advanced the modern theory which has won the support of such distinguished scholars as Eichhorn, Gesenius, Bleek, Ewald, Wellhausen, Cheyne, Driver, Charles, G. A. Smith, to mention but a few. In fact, it may be said that no OT scholar of any repute now maintains that the Book was written by Daniel.

    The Reasons for the Abandonment of the Traditional View.— The grounds upon which modern scholarship abandons the view that the Book was the work of Daniel may be stated as follows: (1) The Book never claims to be the work of Daniel. It is true that the first person, “ I Daniel,” frequently occurs, but this need not imply that Daniel composed the Book. The same phenomenon is found in Ecclesiastes, where the writer speaks in the character of Solomon, “ I the preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem.” Nobody to-day seriously maintains that Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon. The use of the first person is a common literary device employed to give vividness to the narrative. (2) The Book is never quoted or alluded to in Jewish literature before the second century B.C. The silence of Ecclesiasticus ( c. 190 B.C.), which mentions in its list of worthies Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve Minor Prophets, but says nothing about Daniel, is very significant. Its author could scarcely have missed the opportunity of recording the heroic deeds of Daniel if they had been known to him, nor would he have been likely to say, “ Neither was there a man born like unto Joseph” ( Sir_49:15 ), since the life of Daniel presents many parallels to the career of Joseph. The earliest references to the Book of Daniel are found in the Sibylline Oracles ( c. 140 B.C.), the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (109– 107 B.C.), and the First Book of Maccabees ( c. 100 B.C.). It seems to have been quite unknown, therefore, before the latter half of the second century B.C. (3) The place which the Book occupies in the Canon of the OT is equally decisive. The Jewish Canon is composed of three divisions: ( a) The Law or Pentateuch, ( b) the Prophets (including the earlier historical books), ( c) the Hagiographa, e.g. the Psalms, Wisdom Literature, etc. Now if Daniel had been a contemporary record, it must have held a place in the second division of the Canon, which was not completed till the second century B.C. The fact that it belongs to the third division proves conclusively that it was of later origin than the date at which Daniel is presumed to have lived. (4) The writer’ s knowledge of the period in which Daniel lived is full of inaccuracies, whereas his prophetic sketch of the history of the third and second centuries B.C. is remarkably correct. If the traditional view were right, we should certainly find the reverse. The writer would have been accurate in recording the history of his own time, but his knowledge of the succeeding centuries was bound to have been hazy and indefinite. Among the most flagrant historical mistakes many be mentioned— ( a) The description of Belshazzar as the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar ( Daniel 5:1 . Daniel 7:1 , Daniel 8:1 ). As a matter of fact Belshazzar was neither king of Babylon nor son of Nebuchadnezzar ( Daniel 5:1 *). ( b) Darius the Mede is described as “ receiving the kingdom” after the conquest of Babylon (531, 91). As Driver says (CB, p. 53), “ There seems, however, to be no room for such a ruler: for according to all other authorities, Cyrus is the immediate successor of Nabuna’ id, and the ruler of the entire Persian Empire” (see also Daniel 5:31 *). ( c) The assumption that the court language at Babylon was Aramaic ( Daniel 2:4 ). ( d) The statement that Jehoiakim was transported in the third year of his reign ( Daniel 1:2 *). For further inaccuracies, see Cent.B, p. 36, CB, pp. 47– 56. (5) The language of the Book points to a late date. It is not easy to make this point clear to those who are unacquainted with the original languages in which the Book was written. Briefly stated, the facts are these: ( a) A number of Persian words are used (fifteen at least). That these words “ should be used as a matter of course by Daniel under the Babylonian supremacy or in the description of Babylonian institutions before the conquest of Cyrus, is in the last degree improbable” (Driver, p. 57). ( b) Three Greek words are used, and it is not at all likely that these words were known in Babylon as early as 550 B.C. ( c) A large section of the Book is written in Aramaic (p. 36), and the particular type of Aramaic used betrays signs of a later date. [See in reply to R. D. Wilson’ s strictures Driver’ s addenda to his IOT 9 , pp. xxxiv– xxxviii.— A. S. P.] ( d) The Hebrew, in which the remaining portions of the Book is composed, is also characterised by later forms and constructions. The whole argument from style is well worked out by Driver, CB, pp. 56– 63.

    The Real Date of the Book.— The grounds upon which modern scholars maintain that the Book was written during the Maccabean period may be stated thus: (1) It reaches its climax in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, whose attack upon the Jewish religion in 168 B.C. produced the Maccabean revolt. Antiochus is the “ little horn” of Daniel 8:9 “ which waxed exceeding great toward the south and toward the east,” and the “ king of fierce countenance understanding dark sentences,” of Daniel 8:23 . (2) The survey of history in Daniel 11 concludes with a long description of the rule of Antiochus Epiphanes. The earlier periods are dismissed in single sentences, but the description of Antiochus is full and vivid and extends over twenty-four verses, showing that the writer’ s main interest is in the great persecution initiated by him. (3) The general teaching of the Book seems to have as its object the encouragement of the Jewish people to remain loyal and faithful in a time of stress and trial. The stories of Daniel and “ the three young men” are obviously intended to convey a message of hope to men who are placed in a similar situation. Directly we place the Book in the Maccabean period it becomes luminous and clear. If we date it in the Babylonian period, its meaning is dark and unintelligible. It is incredible that Daniel should have taken so little interest in the doings of his contemporaries, and that the whole point of the Book should have been directed towards events which happened 400 years after his time. (4) The traditional view is out of harmony with the general spirit of Hebrew prophecy. The prophets spoke of their own age. When they uttered predictions about the future, those predictions were, as a rule, couched in vague language. Their message to their own age was definite and specific. Their message to the future was far more hazy and indistinct. To date the Book of Daniel in the Babylonian period is therefore to make the prophet unique and an exception to the general rule. To place it in the Maccabean age is to bring it into line with the rest of prophecy. (5) The modern view is the only theory which accounts for the point at which the Book stops. The writer is most exact in his details of the persecutions, but he makes a serious mistake in Daniel 8:14 in estimating the length of time which would elapse before the re-dedication of the Temple, and he describes only the beginning of the Maccabean campaign. He foretells the death of Antiochus, but he is quite wrong about the place and circumstances Daniel 11:45 ). Now supposing the Book to belong to the Babylonian period, it is impossible to explain why his statements should be absolutely exact up to a certain point, and after that point has been reached should contain errors. Supernatural foresight which enabled the prophet to foresee the future clearly as far as 167 B.C. ought also to have been able to carry him to 164 B.C. Why does his forecast lose its accuracy in the final years? The traditional theory has no answer to that question, but the modern view has an explanation which exactly fits the facts. The Book of Daniel, according to its hypothesis, was written between the years 167– 165 B.C. In the main, therefore, it is describing events that had happened and were happening before the writer’ s eyes (see p. 48).

    The Historical Situation (see p. 607)— The Book of Daniel was written, as we have seen, to encourage the Jews to be loyal to their faith in the face of the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus was king of Syria from 175– 164 B.C., and Palestine, which had been subjected by his predecessor Antiochus III in 202 B.C., was part of his dominion. The policy of Antiochus Epiphanes was to conquer and hellenise as much of the world as possible. Palestine, and especially Judæ a under the High Priest Onias III, had hitherto stubbornly resisted all attempts to introduce Greek ideas and customs. One of the first steps which Antiochus took was to depose Onias and appoint Jason (p. 581), who was much more amenable to his wishes, as his successor. Under the leadership of Jason, a Greek gymnasium was set up in Jerusalem, and the priests encouraged the people to take part in the games. In 171 Menelaus offered Antiochus a huge sum of money for the office of High Priest, and Jason was accordingly deposed in his favour. The money was obtained by plundering the Temple treasury. Onias III protested against this act of sacrilege, and suffered martyrdom in consequence. In the following year, a rumour reached Jerusalem that Antiochus had fallen in his campaign against Egypt, and on the strength of it the Jews attempted to reverse his policy. The rumour, however, turned out to be false, and Antiochus took swift vengeance. There was a massacre in Jerusalem in which vast numbers lost their lives. But this was only the beginning of the tragedy. In 169 B.C., Antiochus, foiled by the opposition of the Roman Empire in his attempt to conquer Egypt, determined to complete the subjugation and hellenisation of Palestine. He surprised Jerusalem by a sudden attack, and established his forces within the Temple precincts. The most cherished principles of the Jewish religion, e.g. the observance of the Sabbath and the rite of circumcision, were pronounced illegal. The Jewish worship and sacrifices were abolished, and the sacred books destroyed. And as the crowning profanation on Dec. 15th, 168, a heathen altar was set up in the Temple itself in honour of a pagan god, “ the Abomination of Desolation” as it was called, and as if this were not a sufficient horror a few days later swine were sacrificed upon it. It is no wonder that the Jews were stung to rebellion. An insurrection broke out, headed by Mattathias and his five heroic sons, and they, after a long struggle, eventually regained for the Jewish people their freedom of worship. It was just at this crisis, and immediately after the outbreak of the rebellion against Antiochus, that the Book of Daniel was written. It sprang, as Ewald says, “ from the deepest necessities and the noblest impulses of the age.” It is the appeal of a true patriot to his people to remain firm and unmoved in the faith in spite of suffering and even martyrdom. The comfort and inspiration which it brought to the Jews in their hour of trial secured it an imperishable place in their literature, and it was handed over to Christianity as a priceless legacy.

    The Historical Survey in the Book.— Though the Book of Daniel deals specifically with the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, yet as the scene is laid in Babylon about 550 B.C., it has to traverse the intervening centuries before its objective is reached. Ch. 11, for instance, gives a brief outline of the history of nearly four hundred years, 550– 167 B.C. The same period is also pictorially represented in the vision of the “ Colossal Statue” (Daniel 2), the vision of the four beasts (Daniel 7), and the vision of “ the ram and the he-goat” (Daniel 8). Daniel 9, with its explanation of Jeremiah’ s “ seventy years,” covers the same stretch of history. To understand the allusions in the Book, therefore, the reader must be familiar with the general trend of history during the centuries which it covers. It is divided into the following periods, and the most significant dates may be tabulated thus:

    I. The Babylonian Period

    SOME of the greatest discoveries of modern biblical criticism have been made in the field of what is known as Apocalyptic. No one can read the NT without being impressed by the unique character of the Book of Revelation. It seems to stand alone. There is nothing else which bears any resemblance to it at all, not only in the NT, but in the literature of the world. The nearest approach to it is the Book of Daniel in the OT. We know now, however, that Jewish literature in the two centuries before and the century after Christ affords us many parallels to the Book of Revelation. Other Apocalypses have been discovered of a similar type, and it is now proved beyond all question that the Book of Revelation is the climax of a very important literary and theological movement in Judaism. We shall try to show (1) the character and significance of the movement, (2) the origin of the movement, (3) its literary and theological development, (4) its influence upon Christianity.

    The Meaning of the Term.— The term Apocalypse means an “ unveiling or” disclosure, and a book that bears the name claims to reveal and make plain things which are ordinarily hidden from human eyes. An Apocalypse, therefore, displays very little interest in the present world— it is essentially an unveiling of the future, and it strives to open a window through which it is possible to look into the realities of the unseen world. The nearest approach to Apocalyptic in other literature is to be found in the vision of the realm of the Dead in Homer’ s Iliad and Virgil’ s Æ neid, and in the visions of Purgatory and Heaven in the poems of Dante.

    The Relation between Apocalyptic and Prophecy.— Prophecy was the forerunner of Apocalyptic. The Apocalyptists were the successors of the prophets. There is much in common between the two. Both prophet and Apocalyptist claim to be inspired by God and to be the vehicle of His revelation to man. Both attempt to make known to the people the Divine will and purpose in history. But there are remarkable differences between them. In the first place the prophet was primarily a preacher. He spoke to men directly. It is often a mere accident that his words have been preserved in a book. There were prophets in Israel whose messages have been entirely lost. The Apocalyptist, on the other hand, was primarily a writer. He spoke to the world through his book. His own personality is quite irrelevant. We know nothing about the man behind the writing. The prophet flung himself into the thick of the fray: he intervened in the crises of his nation’ s history, and tried to shape his country’ s destiny in accordance with what he conceived to be the will of God. The Apocalyptist sat apart, veiling his identity under a pseudonym, dreaming his dreams and seeing his visions in solitude. Then, again, the prophet’ s message was concerned with the plane of this world. He spoke to his own age. When he promised deliverance to his people, he looked for that deliverance to happen in his own time. The Apocalyptist despairs altogether of the present age and the present world. His eyes are directed to the end of things, to the final Divine intervention which is to bring down the curtain on the drama of history and usher in the “ New Jerusalem which cometh down from heaven. “ The prophet rarely looks beyond the horizon of his own generation. He is engrossed in the social and religious problems that confront his contemporaries. The Apocalyptist has no patience with the futile schemes and plans of his own time. To his mind there is no hope for the world along the usual lines. God must break into history afresh and set up His kingdom with His own hand. Nothing but a supernatural intervention— a catastrophic “ day of the Lord”— can save the world.

    Moreover, the historical horizon of the Apocalyptist was far wider than that of the prophet. The prophet was concerned with the position of Israel among the nations of the world in his own time. Egypt, Babylon, Moab, Ammon, and the other powers which happened to dominate the situation in his day, form the subject of his utterances, and the ultimate triumph of Israel is always the shining hope which he holds before the eyes of his people. A period of five hundred years elapsed between the age of the great prophets and the age of the Apocalyptists. In the interval much had happened. Israel had fallen under the sway of Babylon, Persia, Syria, Egypt, and Rome in rapid succession. New factors had arisen, which made the hopes of the prophets vain, and induced the spirit of pessimism and despair. The Apocalyptist, therefore, had far more historical experience behind him than the prophet, and, unfortunately, the greater the experience the more dismal appeared the prospect of Israel from a political and worldly point of view.

    The Problem of Apocalyptic.— Palestine, it must be remembered, was the Belgium of the ancient world, and formed the buffer-state between the empires which were contending for the mastery of the world. In the conflicts between Babylon and Egypt in earlier times, and Syria and Egypt in later times, Palestine always suffered devastation and ruin. Time after time its lands were ravaged, its cities destroyed, and its people slain or deported. The problem which the statesmen of Israel had to face was: “ How can the country be kept free from foreign foes?” “ How can Israel avoid being embroiled in these struggles of empires for supremacy? Sometimes a policy of neutrality was adopted sometimes Israel sought safety by making an alliance with what seemed to be the strongest power. But neither the policy of neutrality nor the policy of alliances served to keep the soil of Israel sacrosanct. Statesmanship had to confess itself bankrupt. It seemed as if the “ little nation” of Israel were destined to be the prey of every great empire that emerged upon the field of history. But the problem not only baffled statesmanship, it was a challenge also to faith. The earlier prophets adopted a confident tone. They maintained that Yahweh would prove the saviour of His people and deliver the nation from its adversaries, and sometimes their promises were marvellously fulfilled. The respite, however, was always brief, and it was never long before a new international crisis arose. Gradually the splendid optimism of the earlier prophets changed to pessimism, but it took centuries before despair really settled upon the spirit of the nation. Apocalyptic is the literature of this despair. The Apocalyptist recognises that there is no hope for Israel along the ordinary lines of history. Palestine can never become a world-empire and the centre of universal dominion— at least, not by political methods. Five hundred years of failure have made that lesson obvious. But how could the failure of Israel be reconciled with faith in God? Were the promises of the prophets futile and abortive? That was the main problem which faced the religious leaders of Israel in the later centuries. The answer which they found to it was not the abandonment of faith but its intensification. What could not be realised by the ordinary methods of national development would be achieved by a miraculous intervention. God would break into history. There would be a final cataclysm, followed by the destruction of Israel’ s enemies and the establishment of God’ s kingdom upon earth.

    The Origin and Development of Apocalyptic.— Apocalyptic proper begins with the Book of Enoch and the Book of Daniel, but neither the method nor the idea was altogether new. Germs of both are to be found in the prophets themselves. Most of the prophets spoke of “ a day of the Lord.” “ Behold the day of the Lord cometh with wrath and fierce anger to lay the land desolate,” says the unknown writer of Isaiah 13. The second chapter of Joel is a splendid illustration of Apocalyptic. It foretells the advent of “ the day,” and describes it as “ a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness.” I will show wonders in the heaven and in the earth, blood and fire and pillars of smoke. The earth shall be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come.” The same conception forms the main theme of the prophecy of Zephaniah: “ Wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, until the day that I rise up to the prey for my determination is to gather the nations . . . to pour upon them mine indignation . . . for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy.” Then, too, we have in Isaiah 65 the vision of the new heavens and the new earth which God is to create in place of the old. But though the idea of “ the day of the Lord” is found commonly in the prophets, it is often a “ day of the Lord” against Israel’ s foes or the unrighteous in Israel itself and, moreover, the agent in the infliction of the punishment is generally some human force— e.g. “ the northern army” of Joel. In prophecy, as a rule, God acts indirectly through human agencies in Apocalyptic He acts directly by a personal intervention.

    We may say, therefore, that Apocalyptic arose out of prophecy by developing and universalising the con, ception of the day of the Lord. Its chief interest lay in the questions and problems connected with this idea. The prophets had left the picture vague and indefinite the Apocalyptists attempted to fill in the details and give concrete form and body to the vision. What would happen when the “ great day” came? What would be its antecedents? What would be the character of “ the judgment” and the punishment meted out to the guilty? What would be the nature of the new kingdom that was to be set up? Would it be composed of Israelites only, or would Gentiles be admitted to it? Would it be permanent or only temporary, and, if the latter, what would be its duration? Would the pious dead have any lot in it, and, if so, what would be the nature of their resurrection? Would the wicked also be raised for punishment? What was the nature of the unseen world and heaven and hell? These and many other difficult questions naturally arose, and it was the task of Apocalyptic to attempt to find the answers. The main interest of Apocalyptic, therefore, was always in the problems of eschatology. It looked beyond the narrow horizon of history into the “ great beyond.” It attempted to explore the “ dim hinterland” of existence and find some token of its nature and character. It abandoned the present world as hopeless, but it found its comfort and consolation in a vision— such as no Israelite had ever had before— of a new heaven and a new earth.

    Some Characteristics of Apocalyptic.— The first important characteristic of Apocalyptic is the fact that the writings are always pseudonymous. The authors never write in their own names, but always adopt the name of one of Israel’ s heroes in the past— e.g. Enoch, Daniel, the Patriarchs, Baruch, Moses, Isaiah, etc. Many motives have been suggested for this pseudonymity. Some have found the reason in the fact that the Apocalyptists were devoid of literary ambition, and thought only of the message which they were anxious to convey to the people. Others have argued that they concealed their identity in order to avoid the risk of martyrdom. The real motive, however, is probably that which has recently been suggested by Dr. Charles. At the time when Apocalyptic flourished, the Law had been established in Israel as a complete embodiment of the Divine revelation. “ Thus theoretically and practically no room was left for new light, or any fresh disclosure of God’ s will.” From the third century B.C. onward (that is, after the formation of the Canon of the OT in its earliest forms) writers were compelled by “ the tyranny of the Law and the petrified orthodoxies of the time” to resort to pseudonymity. Their only chance of securing a hearing for their teaching was to attribute it to some consecrated name in the pre-legal period. New hymns were therefore ascribed to David, and books like Canticles and Ecclesiastes to Solomon. Pseudonymity was a literary device to obtain an audience— an act of homage paid by the present to the past.

    Another well-marked characteristic is the use of symbol and figure. Apocalyptic created a style and a vocabulary of its own. Its writers gave full play to their imagination. Jewish poetry is for the most part simple and restrained. Jewish Apocalyptic revels in phantasies and allows the imagination to run riot. One of the earliest illustrations of this method is to be found in the elaborate vision of the wheels in the first chapter of Ezekiel. Daniel’ s visions of the great image with head of gold and feet of iron and clay (Daniel 2), and of the four beasts (Daniel 7), and of the ram and the he-goat (Daniel 8), are further examples of this mode of writing. We may be quite sure that allusions which are obscure to us to-day owing to our ignorance of the details of the situation were clear as crystal when the books were first written. There gradually grew up an apocalyptic tradition. The method became stereotyped. The same figures and symbols reappear in writer after writer. The Book of Revelation in the NT cannot be understood at all apart from the other literature of Apocalyptic. Nearly every picture which the writer draws has a history behind it, and we need to know the history before we can appreciate the picture. To take an illustration. In the Book of Revelation the duration of the rule of Antichrist is described as “ forty and two months” ( Revelation 11:2 Revelation 13:5 ), or 1260 days ( Daniel 11:3 ). How did the writer get this figure? We have only to turn to the Book of Daniel to find the answer to this question. The 42 months or 1260 days of Revelation represent the three and a half years of the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes (from the spring of 168 B.C. to the autumn of 165 B.C.). The actual duration of the persecution under Antiochus became the traditional duration of the reign of Antichrist. Thus we see that the facts and events of the Maccabean struggle became the type and prophecy of the final conflict with Antichrist at the end of time. The figure of Antichrist is very largely the figure of Antiochus “ writ large” and thrown upon the screen of the future. The scenery and panorama of the apocalyptic dream were slowly evolved. There is a history behind every figure and nearly every phrase. The same ideas constantly recur, modified, of course, to suit the needs of the time. The originality of the Book of Revelation lies not so much in the symbols and the imagery (which are mostly old), but in the adaptation of apocalyptic tradition to the circumstances of the Christian Church of the first century.

    Apocalyptic Literature.— Apocalyptic literature begins with the Book of Daniel, which was written shortly after the sacrilege of Antiochus Epiphanes upon the Jewish Temple (about 165 B.C.). Judaism was stirred to its very depths by the ruthless attempt of Antiochus to thrust Greek customs and usages and worship upon the people of God (p. 607). The Book of Daniel was composed to comfort the nation in the hour of its distress, and to urge upon it the duty of resistance even to death. It holds out the promise of Divine intervention. God will set up His throne of judgment the enemies of Israel will be overthrown a kingdom of saints will be established, to which all nations shall be in subjection sin will be abolished and a reign of everlasting righteousness inaugurated the righteous dead of Israel will rise to an eternal life of glory the wicked will be punished with contumely and shame. Next in importance to Daniel is the Book of Enoch, the earliest parts of which probably date from the same period. As it has come down to us, the book is a composite document— a library rather than a volume— and contains at any rate five different Apocalypses, ranging in date from about 170 B.C. to 64 B.C. It deals with such problems as the origin of sin, the judgment of the wicked, and the ultimate lot of the righteous, which is depicted as a long, untroubled life in an ideal Paradise on earth. The part known as “ the Similitudes” is famous for its conception of the Messiah, whom it portrays as the “ Son of Man” sitting beside the Head of Days” (the Almighty) on “ the throne of glory” for the judgment of the world. A third Apocalypse, known as the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, which is quite distinct from the other book ascribed to Enoch, is chiefly remarkable for its description of the “ seven heavens.” Each of these heavens has its particular class of occupants. The second heaven, for instance, is the abode of the fallen angels the third is the seat of Paradise the seventh contains the throne of God. The book belongs to the first half of the first century of the Christian era.

    The overthrow of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 raised a terrible problem for the Jewish mind: How could God have permitted such a frightful disaster to fall upon His people? This problem was discussed in two well-known Apocalypses— the Apocalypse of Baruch and the Fourth Book of Ezra. The former lays stress on the certainty of Divine retribution upon sin. “ Behold the days come, and the books will be opened in which are written the sins of all who have sinned and the treasuries in which the righteousness of all those who have been righteous is gathered.” A belief in a bodily resurrection is strongly affirmed. “ The earth will assuredly restore the dead . . . making no change in their form, but as it has received, so will it restore them.” It is in this Apocalypse that the current conception of original sin is challenged and the statement made that “ every man is the Adam of his own soul.” The Fourth Book of Ezra is a Jewish Apocalypse in a Christian frame, since the opening and closing chapters are Christian additions— a fact which shows that the book was highly valued in early Christian circles. It contains seven visions, all of which are intended to throw light upon the problem. It cannot be said, however, that the book discovers a real solution of the difficulty, though it does suggest some lines of thought in which comfort can be found. (1) We must remember our human limitations, and that it is impossible for us to understand the dealings of an inscrutable Providence. (2) We must trust the boundless love of God. “ Lovest thou the people better than He that made them?” (3) This world is not the end of things. The future life will redress the balance. (4) The day of redemption is drawing near when the Messiah will come and restore the kingdom.

    Among the other writings which belong to this class of literature may be mentioned ( a) The Assumption of Moses, written in the reign of Herod the Great, which gives a rapid sketch of Jewish history up to the time of writing, and foretells the advent of perilous times, and the rise of a new Antiochus, from whose persecutions, however, the people will be delivered. ( b) The Book of Jubilees, or “ little Genesis,” which rewrites the narrative of Genesis from the point of view of late Judaism, leaving out stories which offended the religious sense of the time, and inserting allusions to later Jewish laws and festivals. The book is generally dated between 135 and 115 B.C. ( c) The Ascension of Isaiah, in which there is a large admixture of Christian elements, contains an account of the ascension of Isaiah through the seven heavens, and the descent of the Messiah to the world by means of a Virgin Birth. The book is composite, but the three sections into which it is divided seem to belong to the first century A.D. ( d) The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs contains twelve ethical tracts, purporting to give the last utterances of the twelve sons of Jacob. This book too has been worked over by a Christian hand in fact, some scholars have assumed that it was a Christian production. According to Dr. Charles the bulk of the book dates from 109– 107 B.C. The Testaments are a very valuable storehouse of information with regard to the ethical teaching of the time.

    Among Christian Apocalypses the chief place must be assigned to the Book of Revelation, which marks the climax of the apocalyptic movement. It was written to comfort and inspire the Christian Church in a time of persecution which threatened to reproduce all the horrors of the ré gime of Antiochus Epiphanes. The writer has undoubtedly incorporated in his book much old apocalyptic material, but the outlook and the teaching are his own. His originality consists in the fact that he has infused the Christian spirit and the Christian doctrine into the apocalyptic hope. Many of the old ideas are reproduced, but they are transformed and glorified by the radiance of the Christian faith. Another Apocalypse which had great vogue in early Christian circles is the Apocalypse of Peter, some pages of which have recently been discovered. The fragment is made up of two visions: ( a) the vision of the saints in Paradise, ( b) the vision of Inferno. Paradise is described as a land “ blooming with unfading flowers, and full of spices and fair flowering plants.” The picture of Inferno is very lurid. It depicts the various forms of punishment meted out to different classes of offenders. The Apocalypse of Peter seems to have exerted a great influence on mediæ val theology, and was undoubtedly the indirect source from which Dante’ s picture of Inferno was derived.

    The Place of Apocalyptic in Jewish Thought.— It is often argued, especially by Jewish scholars, that the modern world tends to overestimate the influence of apocalyptic literature on Jewish thought. “ Apocalyptic,” it maintains, “ represents a backwater and not the main stream of Jewish thought. It emanated from certain narrow circles, was altogether esoteric, and made no permanent mark on the Jewish faith.” It is quite true, of course, that Judaism never absorbed the apocalyptic ideals, and perhaps the chief explanation of this is the fact that with the exception of the Book of Daniel, the Jewish Apocalypses were written too late to secure a place in the OT Canon and when the Canon, especially the Law, was established as the form of Jewish orthodoxy, Judaism became more or less stereotyped and impervious to the newer forms of theology. There is one fact, however, which proves conclusively that, whatever the later attitude of Judaism to Apocalyptic may have been, in the centuries immediately preceding and following the birth of Christ it exercised an overwhelming influence— viz. the vast circulation which these different Apocalypses must have had throughout the length and breadth of Judaism, as witnessed by the large number of versions or translations into different languages which were made in very early times. The Apocalypse of Baruch, for instance, seems to have existed in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Syriac the Book of Enoch in Aramaic, Ethiopic, Latin the Book of Jubilees in Hebrew, Greek, Ethiopic, Latin, and Syriac the Testaments of the Patriarchs in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, and Slavonic. These translations would not have been made unless the books had obtained a very wide vogue. If translation into different languages is any gauge of the popularity of a book, the Jewish Apocalypses must have been among the most popular books of the time.

    The Contribution of Apocalyptic to Theology.— As we have already seen, the circumstances which created Apocalyptic naturally coloured its theological outlook, The contributions which it made to the thought of the time are in the main eschatological, though the eschatology in its turn reacted on the more fundamental conceptions of religion— e.g. the doctrine of God. We may summarise the chief theological influences of these writings as follows:

    (1) Apocalyptic accentuated dualism in religious thought. The general impression which we gain from studying the literature is well summed up in the words of one of the writers: The Lord God made not one world but two.” There are two opposed universes— the universe of righteousness under the rule of God, the universe of sin under the lordship of Satan.

    (2) It tended to widen the gulf between God and the world. As C. A. Scott says: “ The tendency from the time of Isaiah onwards had been towards a conception of God as removed and ever further removed from contact with the things of earth and from immediate intercourse with men. This becomes very marked in Apocalyptic literature, and one of its indications is the development in this period of a doctrine of angels, an order of created but superhuman beings who were regarded as mediators of intercourse between God and man.” The frequent allusion, for instance, to hierarchies of angels in the NT is very largely due to the influence of Apocalyptic.

    (3) It developed the doctrine of the future life. The germ of the belief in immortality is found in the OT, but the development of the doctrine into a definite article of faith was the work of Apocalyptic. The first unmistakable reference is found in the Book of Daniel: “ And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt” ( Daniel 12:2 ). There are varying and divergent conceptions of the future life in the different Apocalypses. Sometimes the resurrection takes place on the plane of earth in a kind of millennial Paradise, sometimes on the plane of heaven. Sometimes a bodily resurrection is assumed, sometimes a spiritual. In some writings the resurrection is universal, and includes the wicked as well as the righteous in others there is only a resurrection of the good.

    (4) It gave definite shape and form to the belief in heaven and hell. In the OT the picture of the unseen world is dim and shadowy. Apocalyptic filled in the details and made it a real place with special localities for different classes of spirits. The description of the “ seven heavens” in the Book of the Secrets of Enoch and the Ascension of Isaiah, and of the “ three heavens” in the Testaments of the Patriarchs, coloured the thought of the NT, and passed from the NT into the poetry of Dante and Milton.

    (5) It attempted to find a solution for the problem of the origin of evil. The introduction of sin into the world is generally attributed to the fall of Adam. “ The first Adam transgressed,” says the author of 4 Ezra, “ and was overcome, and so be all they that are born of him.” There can be little doubt that the doctrine of original sin, which is not found in the OT, was really the creation of the Apocalyptists. There were some protests, of course. The Apocalypse of Baruch, as we have seen, challenged the doctrine, and maintained that “ every man is the Adam of his own soul.” There was an alternative suggestion, too, which is found in several Apocalypses, that sin was introduced into the world through the angels, who transgressed with the daughters of men. The basis of this theory is the narrative in Genesis 6:1-Numbers : *.

    (6) Apocalyptic developed the belief in the advent of a Messiah. The wonderful description of the “ Son of Man” in the Book of Enoch has already been mentioned. We have seen, too, how the Ascension of Isaiah, probably under Christian influences, describes the descent of “ the Beloved” (a technical title for the Messiah) from the seventh heaven. The Apocalypse of Baruch foretells the destruction of the Roman Empire through the advent of the Messiah. The Psalms of Solomon portray the advent of the “ Son of David” and the “ Lord Christ” to save his people from the tyranny of the Roman Empire, and 4 Ezra speaks of the coming of a Messiah who will reign for four hundred years and set up the kingdom of heaven upon earth. The conception, however, is not uniform. Sometimes, as in the Book of Enoch, the Messiah is a transcendent Divine being in other writings— the Psalms of Solomon, for instance— he is merely an earthly ruler of supreme dignity and power.

    (7) The conception of “ the kingdom of God,” which in the teaching of the prophets was mainly political and ethical, became in the hands of the Apocalyptists entirely eschatological. “ The kingdom” is to be set up by Divine intervention at the end of time, and its advent is always closely connected with the Day of Judgment.

    (8) Apocalyptic created the conception of the final judgment. As Prof. Burkitt has recently said: “ The doctrine of a future general assize held no place in the Græ co-Roman world apart from the belief of Jews and Christians. Possibly the belief may have been fostered by the influence of Zoroastrianism, but it is difficult in that case to explain why the doctrine is not found in Mithraism, which came far more under the spell of Zoroastrianism than did Judaism.” “ The doctrine of the last judgment required a very special set of circumstances for its development,” and those circumstances are found in the history of Judaism in the centuries before and after the commencement of the Christian era.

    The Permanent Value of Apocalyptic.— We may commence by quoting the excellent statement of Prof. Burkitt. The Jewish Apocalypses “ are the most characteristic survival of what I will venture to call, with all its narrowness and incoherence, the heroic age of Jewish history, the age in which the nation attempted to realise in action the part of the peculiar people of God. It ended in catastrophe, but the nation left two successors, the Christian Church and the rabbinical schools, each of which carried on some of the old national aims. And of the two it was the Christian Church that was most faithful to the ideas enshrined in the Apocalypses.” The exterior forms and the weird figures and symbols of Apocalyptic were abandoned, of course, except in the Book of Revelation, but the spiritual substance of apocalyptic faith was incorporated in the doctrine of Christianity. Let us briefly note what are the elements of abiding value in Apocalyptic.

    (1) The first and fundamental article in the faith of the Apocalyptists is that history is teleological. There is a great Divine purpose being worked out in the world-movements of the time. Things do not happen by accident, and history will not end in chaos. There is always the “ great far-off divine event towards which the whole creation moves”— the final dé nouement of the drama.

    (2) But there are two ways of writing a Utopia. There is the Greek way, which is also the English way, that sees Utopia realised in the slow and steady improvement of human society and there is the Jewish way, which says that Utopia can only be realised by a great act of Divine intervention. Both views are right and both are wrong. The Greek way is wrong because it ignores the action of God the Jewish way is wrong because it thinks that God can work only through a cataclysm. The true view lies in the union of the Greek and Jewish conceptions. Utopia is the realisation of the perfect will of God worked out in history.

    (3) Apocalyptic lifted man’ s vision from the world that is seen to the world that is unseen. “ It called into being a new world to redress the balance of the old.” Pushed to extremes, of course, Apocalyptic issues in the form of “ other-worldliness,” which was so strongly and so justly reprobated by George Eliot. But, stated sanely, the doctrine of the Apocalyptists seems essential to a vital faith. The conception of the “ seven heavens” may have been a fantastic dream, but a dream is sometimes better than nothing at all. In the stern times in which the Apocalypses were written, the faith of men could not have been kept alive by a vague and dim phantom-heaven. The Apocalyptists created, largely out of their imagination of course, a heaven that seemed real to them, and the picture of that heaven made men heroes in the fight for faith.

    Such are some of the ideas— and they were undoubtedly created and developed by Apocalyptic— which possess abiding value for Christianity.


    Immortal Characteristics in the Iliad and the Aeneid Essay

    At the same time matters stand she by no means rests from badgering myself before the gods: I take those Trojan side in struggle, so states, (Homer, I. 593-599). This individual does go on to assurance he will do as she gets asked, even though the reader may sense his foreboding to do so. His experience is good though, as Hera’s response is as he said it would be biting on and severe.

    Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student. Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

    Who is it this time, schemer? That has your ear? Just how fond are you of secret plans, of taking decisions privately, (Homer, We. 620-622). Zeus is portrayed as being a beaten The almighty, one who is usually verbally assaulted by his own partner and definitely seems to be weary of her scorn.

    One can impression the laughter as the words are drafted, the concealed personalities which can be so comparable to common guy. Jupiter, however , does not be anxious over what he will move through personally to be able to grant the wish in the goddess who has appealed to him. With the comfort that calms the weather, and lightly kissed his daughter. Then he said: No need to hesitate, Cytherea. Your children’s destiny is actually not changed, (Virgil, My spouse and i. 345-348).

    Jupiter offers granted what she wanted, and promises that her progeny will certainly found the truly great kingdom of Rome, named after one of the dual sons to come from Aeneas. You can currently discern favoritism for the Romans with this issuance of Jupiter. He is not really a hen-pecked God as Zeus is, although Jupiter’s wife is not only a timid beast. Very much like Hera, she is vastly upset and carried a grave distaste for the Trojans.

    Jupiter, nevertheless , feels Juno will ultimately relax. Juno, without a doubt, whose bitterness now fills with fear and torment sea and earth and sky, can mend her ways, and favor them as I do, Lords worldwide, the toga-bearing Romans, (Virgil, We. 376-379).

    The reader gets the sense that the Greek Gods while told of by Homer are seen since folly. Zeus is definitely not the almighty learn, as one might suspect the king in the Gods to be. He’s stuck between caring for his subjects, the minor Gods, and listening to the gripes and complaints of his wife, the telling is practically comical. Virgil, however , tells the origination of any great contest of people, his own Aventure. The Jupiter is usually patient and assured from the greatness to come.

    His patient ways along with his daughter and sincere idea that all will be as he explained indicate his power and greatness, exhibiting him to be a true Full of the Gods. Hector shifted forward together with his round-faced defend. Since from night time clouds a baleful summer season star will blaze in the clear, then fade in cloud, therefore Hector shone in front or became concealed when he harangued the rear positions his whole form in bronze aflash like lightening of father Zeus, (Homer, XI. 67-72).

    The soldiers acknowledge the ability of Hector to shadow himself as the protection with the Gods. Zeus’ otherworldly display of power and support for the Trojan’s cause implies the justness of their cause, yet as we already know, his might can be not good enough. Troy will lose the battle and the God is not all-powerful in the long run.

    Aeneas can be reminded of his family fortune and honor, that are on the line. True to his word and constant to his God, Aeneas leaves Dido to fend for himself. Her misery and subsequent suicide are not given any thought by Jupiter, the mission is at palm and the wonderful Roman individuals are far essential than a single female. Beating her lovely breasts three times, four times, and tearing her golden frizzy hair, Oh Jupiter! will this man proceed, will he have laughed at my empire, stranger than he is and was, ‘ (Virgil, IV.

    816-820)? Jupiter pays off her zero mind the Roman Empire is at share. Once again, it is in silent actions, verbal requires that Jupiter issues his power. He is not really forced to use mortal steps to ensure his will is done. Zeus is portrayed since the valerse, the The almighty who has to physically participate in things to obtain anything achieved.

    The stronger God of the two, Jupiter, simply asks and gets what he would like. The worry of retribution is brutal amongst not simply the people, yet also the Gods. He would not take pity on the fallen as Zeus does.

    In terms of manly strength, Jupiter is by far the strongest. Of course , such an amazing group of warriors, philosophers and artisans could do not have come from therefore slovenly a King because Zeus. The other military flock to meat this individual thirsts and hungers. Come, try out him lovely nectar and ambrosia, that the empty stomach may not weaken him, (Homer, XIX. 374-382).

    Athena then is herd to give the poor warriors some nourishment so they may fight bravely in their final fights. His heart still belongs to the burning off side. We see his weakness again with the disturbance into the struggle. In calling the Gods to Mount Olympus, Zeus explains to them, You know what strategy I have in mind and why I called you, experience here. Guys on both sides may perish, still they may be near my own heart.

    And yet, by simply heaven, right here I stay at ease after a ridge. I’ll have an adequate view here. However you others, get into action, side with the men of Troy or with Achaeans, as every has a mind to, (Homer TWENTY.

    22-29). Zeus lazily tells the other Gods that the people are dying and it destroys his cardiovascular system. However , he will sit on the mountaintop and watch the spectacle. They should drop and help whichever side they will feel is merely, but he will probably just enjoy. Homer again makes fun of the The almighty.

    He can a inactive during the warfare he was powerless to stop to begin with. His wife is continually meddling in the affairs of state, and Zeus is not going to step in to act according to his heart. The almighty father then, chief benefits of the world, started to speak, as he spoke the great admission of the Gods fell noiseless, and the planet quaked, and silence ruled in the top air, the west-winds visited rest, the deep ocean stilled his waters to calm, (Virgil, Times. 137-142). He has decided that fate will serve each man his own menu.

    Jupiter no longer condones divine intervention. This kind of surprises virtually everyone present, as they have interfered in these matters straight away. However, the California king of the Gods has spoken and this cannot be some other way. He got oath nodding, making most Olympus move at his nod.

    There was a finish of speaking. Jupiter form his golden throne arose, and lords of heaven about either hands escorted him to the threshold of his hall, (Virgil, By. 160-164).

    Aeneas, blindly will as he is bid to perform. He leaves his heart lurking behind when he leaves Dido on st. kitts. Jupiter is not concerned with the trivial concerns before him, and concerns himself simply with the Both roman creation. Aeneas simply cannot simply think that Dido will certainly eventually understand what he must perform, unlike Jupiter feelings to get Juno.

    The experience the Gods portray distinct them significantly from humankind, making the folks seem as if they are merely pieces of a chess video game, there intended for the amusement of pets bored with perpetuity. Although Homer pokes entertaining at the Goodness from the earlier and uses the tale to see of the heroism of the Ancient greek language people, this individual fails to place his own God on the forefront being a just and caring ruler. Virgil at least shows the God of the Romans together who wonders in the elegance of the contest. Physically the gods is much superior to the boys they control, but in the truth of Zeus, he is far from being above the simple human frailty of emotion.

    Homer instills a sense of commonality involving the people and their God, one out of which the playing field is usually an equal one particular. The Gods are affected by this conflict almost as much as the people will be. When interfering in the matters of men, the Gods happen to be shaken for the core often, harmed in others, and heartbroken other times still. To get Virgil, the folks end within the positive note.

    The fantastic anti-hero is dead, and the true hero does not come to be Aeneas, however the Romans themselves. Someone sees throughout the epic composition, that Virgil had them in mind all along. The creation myth from the great disposition seeks to solidify all their place in the world and by exhibiting that that creation originated from a just and effective authority he achieves just that. Works Cited


    Culture

    Although Karan people are the dominant ethnic group of Karianka, there are a lot of people which is Karanese (citizen of Karianka) but not Karan. Karanese culture is mostly similar to Finnish culture but with Russian and Tatar influence.

    Cuisine

    Karanese cuisine is known for its alcoholic drinks. Karanese vodka, Karanese rakii and kemizi is some of the most famous bottles of Karanese cuisine. Also fish is too prevalant in Karanese cuisine too. You can spot the Russian and Tatar influence, especially in alcohol drinks.

    The main traditional dishes in Karianka are kapussa (stuffed cabbage), salmon, hernokeitto (pea soup), irimshina (it looks like a pizza with cheese or Turkish pita), yordoo (kind of yoghurt) and lihapullat.

    Sport

    The most popular sport in the country is football and basketball, and volleyball is common too. Also, water sports are common in southern cities, and ice hockey and rollerblading are common in northern cities like Murman or Saint Peter of North.

    Football

    Football is mostly prevalent in Järvet and Romaaki is the city with most championship cups with 25 cups, 13 cups by Veturi Romaaki, 11 cups by Sberbank Romaaki and 1 cup by Špartäküs Romaaki. Also, Zeniitti Pietari and Redbull Pietari are the two richest clubs in the Premier League.

    2017 season of Premierliiga was called as "Moneyliiga" because in 2017, a lot of teams are sold to foreign banks and an association which includes Russian-origin teams in Karianka, called Russball is collapsed because of economic crisis.

    Basketball

    Basketball is also too popular in Karianka. Špartäküs Pietari UK is the most successful Karanese basketball team.

    Media

    Responsibility of media in Karianka is on Ministry of Media.

    Television

    Karianka's publicly funded broadcasting company is KaranTV. Television channels of government are connected to Karan TV.

    Telecommunications
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    Transportation
    Karianka Airways
    Henri Aleksii International
    Politics
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    Culture
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    Administrative divisions
    Cities
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