The Valentine III introduced a new three-man turret, but retained the same engine and main gun as the Valentine II.
The new turret was enlarged at the front by moving the front plate forward by 8in, and at the rear by enlarging the rear bulge, to make space for a third crew member. It had a commander's hatch at the rear and a modified mantlet. The new turret was about half a ton heavier than the original.
The Mk III was powered by the same 131hp A.E.C. Diesel engine as the Mk II, and carried the standard combination of a 2-pounder anti-tank gun and a coaxial Besa machine gun.
Side armour was increased to 60mm.
A similar pattern was followed with the Valentine IV and Valentine V. The Mk IV was similar to the Mk II, with the two-man turret, but using a G.M.C. diesel engine. The Mk V was powered by the G.M.C. engine, but used the three man turret.
The Valentine III began to enter service in North Africa in the summer of 1942, at the time of Rommel's last offensive at Alam Halfa. They were also involved in the Second Battle of El Alamein. It was also used by 6th Armoured Division during Operation Torch, the invasion of French North Africa.
No close support version of the Valentine was built from new, but a small number of tanks were converted to that role in New Zealand. Normally the Valentine gun tank operated alongside Matilda II close support tanks, armed with a 3in howitzer, and thirty three Matilda Mk IVCS tanks were sent to New Zealand as part of their armoured force. When New Zealand decided to send an armoured regiment to the Pacific theatre the decision was made to standardize on the Valentine. The howitzers were removed from the Matildas, and installed in Valentine IIIs. The New Zealand Tank Squadron was equipped with sixteen Valentine gun tanks and nine close support tanks. They performed well in the Pacific theatre, and some remained in service until 1955.
Hull Length: 5m 56cm/ 18ft 3in
Hull Width: 2m 63cm/ 8ft 7.5in
Height: 2m 27cm/ 7ft 5.5in
Weight: 16,700kg/ 16.4 tons
Engine: 131hp AEC A 160
Max Speed on road: 24km/h/ 15mph
Max Speed off road: 18km/h / 11mph
Max Range: 176km/ 109 miles
Armament: QF 2-pounder Mk IX, 7.92mm Besa machine gun
Turret front: 65mm
Turret sides: 60mm
Nose: 60mm at 21 degrees
Glacis plate: 30mm at 68 degrees
Hull sides: 60mm vertical
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Valentinian III, Latin in full Flavius Placidius Valentinianus, (born July 2, 419, Ravenna [Italy]—died March 16, 455, Rome), Roman emperor from 425 to 455. At no time in his long reign were the affairs of state personally managed by Valentinian. He was the son of the patrician Flavius Constantius (who ruled as Constantius III in 421) and Galla Placidia. When his uncle, the emperor Honorius, died in 423, the usurper John ruled for two years before he was deposed. Then Placidia controlled the West in her young son’s name until 437, although the powerful patrician Flavius Aetius became the effective ruler toward the end of this regency. The most important political event of these years was the landing of the Vandals in Africa in 429 10 years later they threw off the overlordship of Valentinian’s government. Valentinian was utterly unable to stop their attacks on Italy.
On October 29, 437, Valentinian married Licinia Eudoxia, the daughter of Theodosius II (Eastern emperor, 408–450) and Eudocia. Little is known of Valentinian in the years after his marriage. He spent his life in the pursuit of pleasure while Aetius controlled the government. In 444 Valentinian, acting in conjunction with Pope Leo I the Great, issued the famous Novel 17, which assigned to the bishop of Rome supremacy over the provincial churches. During the closing years of Valentinian’s reign, the Huns invaded Gaul (451) and northern Italy (452), but it is not known whether Valentinian personally played any significant part in meeting these crises.
As a result of false information that made him doubt Aetius’s loyalty, Valentinian murdered the great patrician with his own hands in the imperial palace at Rome on September 21, 454. The following year, two barbarians, Optila and Thraustila, who had been retainers of Aetius, avenged their master by murdering the emperor in the Campus Martius.
"Barbarians at the Gates" [ edit | edit source ]
Valentinian, alongside his sister Honoria, are held in the arms of Constantius III, being concerned about his chin size. He is presumed to have escaped with his mother after Honorius lusted after her.
"The Fall of Rome" [ edit | edit source ]
Galla pleaded Theodosius II to depose Joannes from his throne so that Valentinian would be installed as her puppet, with the help of Bonifacius, though only because he hated Castinus. After he was finally crowned, he would marry his niece Licinia and have two children with her.
Valentinian is not seen again until he backstabs Aetius. The reason being that he was a prolific gambler and, more relevantly, rapist of wives, including that of Petronius. Convinced by Petronius, he mortally wounded Aetius and forced Aetius' legions to watch him die. Afterwards, he would be contacted by a priest, guided by Leo, telling him that he "had cut off [his] right hand with [his] left. After denying Petronius the role of magister militum, he would be ambushed by two Aetian Scythians, guided by Petronius, and would be slaughtered by them.
31 Bits of Valentine's Day Trivia You Probably Didn't Know
These fun Valentine's Day facts will make you an expert on this love-filled holiday.
It's not uncommon to consider Valentine&rsquos Day to be nothing more than a day focused on love, chocolates, roses, and fancy (read: over-priced) dinners at upscale restaurants. And while that's certainly not far from the truth, there&rsquos actually so much more to Valentine&rsquos Day than what is observed today. And what better way to learn about this arguably commercialized day than to familiarize yourself with some common Valentine's Day trivia?
For example, do you know the most-purchased flower on Valentine&rsquos Day? Or the most popular flavor in each box of assorted chocolate bon bons? There are plenty of fun Valentine&rsquos Day facts that will totally surprise you. Kathleen Davis, deputy editor of Fast Company, has helped uncover these amazing Valentine&rsquos Day facts, so while you&rsquore shopping for the perfect Valentine&rsquos Day gift that says &ldquoI love you,&rdquo have a read through these pieces of Valentine&rsquos Day trivia to learn even more about this special holiday.
And, if you&rsquore still stuck on deciding how to celebrate this love-centric holiday, consider making a romantic Valentine&rsquos Day dinner to enjoy by candlelight, or perhaps watching a funny or overly-sweet Valentine&rsquos Day movie with your loved one (or alone, because those movies hit regardless). And of course, don&rsquot forget to write a Valentine&rsquos Day card &mdash aka the ultimate love letter &mdash to tell your significant other how important they are to you. You can even include one of these unexpected and impressive Valentine&rsquos Day fun facts in your card if your loved one is a fan of a good piece of Valentine&rsquos Day trivia.
Whatever you decide to do this Valentine&rsquos Day, just remember to focus on the real reason for the holiday: Chocolate. (Just kidding, it&rsquos love!)
Romance became part of it later
Like many Christian feast days, Valentine&rsquos didn&rsquot become associated with secular practices until later. In the Middle Ages, people thought the feast day also symbolized the beginning of birds&rsquo mating season and so they began to associate it with becoming, as Bambi so charmingly calls it, &ldquotwitterpated.&rdquo English poet Geoffrey Chaucer recorded the day as a romantic celebration for the first time in his 1375 poem &ldquoParliament of Foules.&rdquo According to Poetry in Translation, he wrote, &ldquoFor this was sent on Seynt Valentyne&rsquos day / Whan every foul cometh ther to choose his mate.&rdquo
And from the very beginning, people took issue with how Valentine&rsquos Day was celebrated. &ldquoPeople love the idea that there were these wonderful eras before our own time when people celebrated Valentine&rsquos Day in the most authentic way,&rdquo Elizabeth Nelson, a 19th-century pop culture expert who wrote the book on marketing the holiday told the University of Nevada. &ldquoBut there was always this long and complicated history about Valentine&rsquos Day and people actually thought that it was too commercial and insincere from the very beginning.&rdquo
What is the meaning of Valentine’s Day?
Over the years (and centuries), Valentine’s Day has been a religious celebration, an ancient ritual day, and a commercial holiday. All that change means the meaning of Valentine’s Day is truly whatever you want it to be: You can skip the celebrations completely, buy yourself some chocolate or flowers, or express your love and appreciation for the people in your life, whether they’re co-workers, romantic partners, friends, or family members. Some people love Valentine’s Day, and some people just love to hate it Galentine’s Day (and Galentine’s Day gifts) are a relatively new way to celebrate, as women stock up on Valentine’s Day ideas for herਊnd celebrate their love for their closest friends.
If you’re trying to figure out what to do on Valentine’s Day, just know that there are no rules: It’s a new era, and you can celebrate the day of love however you want, even if it’s just through self-love. A nice dinner out, going to the movies, cooking a fancy meal at home, or hosting a Valentine’s Day party are also great ways to celebrate whatever you do, if you have a romantic partner, just make sure you’re on the same page to avoid any disappointments or hurt feelings.
According to Hallmark, a whopping 145 million Valentine's Day cards are exchanged every February 14 (and that's not even including all those kids' valentines exchanged in classrooms!). This makes Valentine's Day the second biggest holiday for exchanging greeting cards, after Christmas. And how sweet: Teachers receive the most Valentine's Day cards annually, followed by children, mothers and wives. Needless to say, we've come a long way from 1913, which was when Hallmark Cards produced their first Valentine's card.
Hey, furry friends need love, too! In fact, around 27.6 million American households gave Valentine's Day presents to their pet dogs last year, and more than 17.1 million picked up gifts for their cats. All in all, American households spent an estimated $751.3 million on gifts for their pets on Valentine&rsquos Day.
The Valentine has been collecting, preserving and interpreting Richmond Stories for over a century. Located in the heart of historic downtown, the Valentine uses the complicated and nuanced history of this important region to challenge and inspire a diverse audience.
From bold exhibitions and innovative tours to special community events, fascinating school programs and research opportunities, the Valentine is committed to engaging with a broad audience in an ongoing dialogue about the significance and relevance of the city’s history.
Explore a list of our current exhibitions, public programs and tours, our robust collection, our public calendar and how to become a member.
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The Valentine is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. The Valentine is a BBB Accredited Charity and meets the BBB Standards for Charity Accountability.
The Valentine has been collecting, preserving and interpreting Richmond’s 400-year history for over a century. Located in the heart of historic downtown, the Valentine is a place for residents and tourists to discover the diverse stories that tell the broader history of this important region.