Clara Barton

Clara Barton

Clara Barton is one of the most-recognized heroes of the American Civil War. She began her illustrious career as an educator but found her true calling tending wounded soldiers on and off bloody Civil War battlefields. When the war ended, Barton worked to identify missing and deceased soldiers, and eventually founded the American Red Cross. Her life was dedicated to the care of others, and Barton had a crucial and long-lasting impact on caregiving and disaster relief in America and throughout the world.

Early Life of Clara Barton

She was born Clarissa Harlowe Barton on December 25, 1821 in Oxford, Massachusetts, into an abolitionist family. It’s reported her love of nursing started when her oldest brother experienced a serious head injury and she nursed him diligently for two years.

After receiving a formal education, Barton became a teacher at the age of 15. Twelve years later, she founded and was headmaster of a free school in New Jersey where 600 students were eventually enrolled. She left the school after the school board voted to replace her as headmaster with a man.

Barton then moved to Washington, D.C., and became a clerk for the U.S. Patent Office, earning pay equal to her male counterparts. “I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a man’s work for less than a man’s pay,” Barton said later.

Civil War Service Begins

Barton was working for the Patent Office when the Civil War broke out on April 12, 1861. A week later, soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry were attacked by southern sympathizers, and the wounded flooded the streets of Washington, D.C.

A makeshift hospital was created in the uncompleted Capitol Building. Though often described as shy, Barton felt an urgency to care for the injured and brought them food, clothing and other necessities.

As the need for care and medical provisions grew, Barton gathered provisions from her home and spearheaded a campaign to solicit additional relief items from friends and the public.

More importantly, she spent hours with the homesick, suffering soldiers, nursing them back to health, writing letters and offering kind words, prayers and comfort. With no formal training, her nursing expertise came from common sense, courage and compassion.

‘Angel of the Battlefield’

After witnessing the sad state of battle-weary soldiers in Washington, D.C., Barton realized the greatest need for care and supplies was in the makeshift field hospitals near the front lines. In 1862, she received permission to take bandages and other supplies to a battlefield hospital after the Battle of Cedar Mountain in Northern Virginia. From then on, she traveled with the Union Army.

On September 17, 1862, Barton arrived at the now-infamous Antietam cornfield during the Battle of Antietam. After dropping off her wagon load of medical supplies to grateful surgeons struggling to make bandages out of corn husks, she worked long into the night assisting the surgeons, cooking food for the soldiers and tending the wounded, despite nearby cannon fire and bullets flying overhead.

One unlucky soldier was shot and killed as Barton tended him. Said Barton later, “A ball has passed between my body and the right arm which supported him, cutting through his chest from shoulder to shoulder. There was no more to be done for him and I left him to his rest. I have never mended that hole in my sleeve. I wonder if a soldier ever does mend a bullet hole in his coat?”

Barton made a profound impression on Union army surgeons at Antietam. One surgeon, Dr. James Dunn, said of Barton, “In my feeble estimation, General McClellan, with all his laurels, sinks into insignificance beside the true heroine of the age, the angel of the battlefield.”

Barton continued to assist the Union Army at Petersburg, Virginia, and Fredericksburg and Fort Wagoner, South Carolina, among other places. But even her best efforts couldn’t conquer the disease and infection so rampant in warfare.

In Charleston, South Carolina, she became seriously ill and was transported to Hilton Head Island, then to Washington, D.C., to recuperate. She solicited more supplies and, once recovered, went back to the battlefield.

Organizing an Unprecedented Letter Campaign

Whenever possible, Barton recorded the personal information of the soldiers she cared for. As the war progressed, she was often called upon to correspond with family members of missing, wounded or dead soldiers. After returning to Washington, D.C., in January 1865 after the death of her brother, she continued her letter-writing campaign from her home.

Barton’s efforts didn’t go unnoticed, and President Abraham Lincoln selected her as General Correspondent for the Friends of Paroled Prisoners. Her job was to find missing soldiers and, if possible, inform their families of their fate.

It was a daunting yet important job which she couldn’t do alone. She formed the Bureau of Records of Missing Men of the Armies of the United States and – along with twelve clerks – researched the status of tens of thousands of soldiers and answered over 63,000 letters.

By the time Barton left her post and presented her final report to Congress in 1869, she and her assistants had identified 22,000 missing soldiers, but she believed at least 40,000 were still unaccounted for.

Founding the American Red Cross

In 1869, Barton traveled to Europe for rest and learned about the International Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland, which had established an international agreement known as the Geneva Treaty (now part of the Geneva Convention), which laid out rules for the care of the sick and wounded in wartime.

When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, Barton – never one to sit on the sidelines – wore a red cross made of red ribbon and helped deliver supplies to needy war-zone citizens.

After Barton returned to the United States, she solicited political support for America to enter the Geneva Treaty. President Chester A. Arthur finally signed the treaty in 1882 and the American Association of the Red Cross (later called the American Red Cross) was born, with Barton at its helm.

Leading the American Red Cross

As head of the American Red Cross, Barton focused mainly on disaster relief, including helping victims of the deadly Johnstown Flood in Pennsylvania, and devastating hurricanes and tidal waves in South Carolina and Galveston, Texas. She also sent relief supplies overseas to victims of war and famine.

Barton played an integral role in the passing of the “American Amendment” to the Geneva Treaty in 1884 which expanded the role of the International Red Cross to include assisting victims of natural disasters.

But everything wasn’t rosy in Barton’s Red Cross. She was reportedly an independent workaholic who fiercely protected her vision of what the Red Cross should be. She also suffered from depression, although nothing rallied her more than an urgent call for help. Her authoritarian leadership approach and supposed mismanagement of funds eventually forced her to resign her post in 1904.

In 1905, Barton established the National First Aid Association of America which made first aid kits and worked closely with local fire and police departments to create ambulance brigades.

Clara Barton’s Legacy

Barton served on sixteen battlefields during the Civil War. Whether working tirelessly behind the scenes to procure supplies, prepare meals and arrange makeshift hospitals or tending the wounded during some of the goriest battles in American history, she earned the respect of countless soldiers, officers, surgeons and politicians. She almost singlehandedly changed the widely-held viewpoint that women were too weak to help on battlefields.

The American Red Cross wouldn’t exist as it is today without Barton’s influence. She believed in equal rights and helped everyone regardless of race, gender or economic station. She brought attention to the great need of disaster victims and streamlined many first aid, emergency preparedness and emergency response procedures still used by the American Red Cross.

Clara Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 91. A monument in her honor stands at Antietam National Battlefield.

Sources

American Red Cross Founder Clara Barton. American Red Cross.

Biography: Clara Barton. Civil War Trust.

Clara Barton. Clara Barton Missing Soldiers Office Museum.

Clara Barton and the American Red Cross. Clara Barton Birthplace Museum.

Clara Barton at Antietam. National Park Service.


Clara Barton

Known for: Civil War service founder of American Red Cross

Dates: December 25, 1821 - April 12, 1912 (Christmas Day and Good Friday)

Occupation: nurse, humanitarian, teacher

Clara Barton was the youngest of five children in a Massachusetts farming family. She was ten years younger than the next-youngest sibling. As a child, Clara Barton heard stories of wartime from her father, and, for two years, she nursed her brother David through a long illness. At fifteen, Clara Barton began teaching in a school that her parents started to help her learn to transcend her shyness, sensitivity, and hesitation to act.

After a few years of teaching in local schools, Clara Barton started a school in North Oxford and served as a school superintendent. She went to study at the Liberal Institute in New York then began teaching in a school in Bordentown, New Jersey. At that school, she convinced the community to make the school free, an unusual practice in New Jersey at that time. The school grew from six to six hundred students, and with this success, it was determined that the school should be headed by a man, not a woman. With this appointment, Clara Barton resigned, after a total of 18 years in teaching.

In 1854, her home town Congressman helped her obtain an appointment by Charles Mason, Commissioner of Patents, to work as a copyist in the Patent Office in Washington, DC. She was the first woman in the United States to hold such a government appointment. She copied secret papers during her time in this job. During 1857 to 1860, with an administration that supported enslavement, which she opposed, she left Washington, but worked at her copyist job by mail. She returned to Washington after the election of President Lincoln.


Contents

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts, and was named after the titular character of Samuel Richardson's novel Clarissa. Her father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman (politician) who inspired his daughter with patriotism and a broad humanitarian interest. [2] He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest. He was also the leader of progressive thought in the Oxford village area. [4] Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton.

When she was three years old, Barton was sent to school with her brother Stephen, where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts she is the only known friend Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidity. [5]

When Barton was ten years old, she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe head injury. She learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him (a standard treatment at the time). She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. He made a full recovery. [5]

Her parents tried to help cure her timidity by enrolling her to Colonel Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a catastrophe. [6] Barton became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was brought back home to regain her health.

Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member a paternal cousin of Clara's had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired. [5] Clara was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. After the work was done, she was at a loss because there wasn't anything else to help with, to not feel like a burden to her family. [6]

She began to play with her boy cousins and to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such activities as horseback riding. It wasn't until after she had injured herself that Clara's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Her mother decided she should focus on more ladylike skills. She invited one of Clara's girl cousins over to help develop her femininity. From her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well. [7]

Barton was beginning to be shy. To assist Barton with overcoming her shyness, her parents persuaded her to become a schoolteacher. [8] She achieved her first teacher's certificate in 1839, at only 17 years old. This profession interested Barton greatly and helped motivate her she ended up conducting an effective redistricting campaign that allowed the children of workers to receive an education. Successful projects such as this gave Barton the confidence needed when she demanded equal pay for teaching.

Barton became an educator in 1838 and served for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher she knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys since as a child she enjoyed her boy cousins' and brothers' company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her care. [6] After her mother's death in 1851, the family home closed down. Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. In this college, she developed many friendships that broadened her point of view on many issues concurring at the time. The principal of the institute recognized her tremendous abilities and admired her work. This friendship lasted for many years, eventually turning into a romance. [4] As a writer, her terminology was pristine and easy to understand. Her writings and bodies of work could instruct the local statesmen. [4]

While teaching in Hightstown, Barton learned about the lack of public schools in Bordentown, the neighboring city. [4] In 1852, she was contracted to open a free school in Bordentown, which was the first ever free school in New Jersey. [9] She was successful, and after a year she had hired another woman to help teach over 600 people. Both women were making $250 a year. This accomplishment compelled the town to raise nearly $4,000 for a new school building. Once completed, though, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman. She was demoted to "female assistant" and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, and quit. [10]

In 1855, she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office [11] this was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man's salary. For three years, she received much abuse and slander from male clerks. [12] Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan, she was fired because of her "Black Republicanism". [12] After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service.

On April 19, 1861, the Baltimore Riot resulted in the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. Victims within the Massachusetts regiment were transported to Washington D.C. after the violence, which happened to be Barton's home at the time. Wanting to serve her country, Barton went to the railroad station when the victims arrived and nursed 40 men. [12] Barton provided crucial, personal assistance to the men in uniform, many of whom were wounded, hungry and without any supplies other than what they carried on their backs. She began helping them by personally taking supplies to the unfinished Capitol Building where the young men of the 6th Massachusetts Militia, who had been attacked in Baltimore, Maryland, were housed.

Barton quickly recognized them, as she had grown up with some of them, and some she had even taught. Barton, along with several other women, personally provided clothing, food, and supplies for the sick and wounded soldiers. She learned how to store and distribute medical supplies and offered emotional support to the soldiers by keeping their spirits high. She would read books to them, write letters to their families for them, talk to them, and support them. [13]

It was on that day that she identified herself with army work and began her efforts towards collecting medical supplies for the Union soldiers. Prior to distributing provisions directly onto the battlefield and gaining further support, Barton used her own living quarters as a storeroom and distributed supplies with the help of a few friends in early 1862, despite opposition in the War Department and among field surgeons. [2] Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. In August 1862, Barton finally gained permission from Quartermaster Daniel Rucker to work on the front lines. She gained support from other people who believed in her cause. These people became her patrons, her most supportive being Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. [14]

After the First Battle of Bull Run, Barton placed an ad in a Massachusetts newspaper for supplies the response was a profound influx of supplies. [15] She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles, including Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. [16] Barton helped both Union and Confederate soldiers. [15] Supplies were not always readily available though. At the battle of Antietam, for example, Barton used corn-husks in place of bandages. [17]

In 1863 she began a romantic relationship with an officer, Colonel John J. Elwell. [18]

In 1864, she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She was known as the "Florence Nightingale of America". [19] She was also known as the "Angel of the Battlefield" [13] after she came to the aid of the overwhelmed surgeon on duty following the battle of Cedar Mountain in Northern Virginia in August 1862. She arrived at a field hospital at midnight with a large number of supplies to help the severely wounded soldiers. This naming came from her frequent timely assistance as she served troops at the battles of Fairfax Station, Chantilly, Harpers Ferry, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Charleston, Petersburg and Cold Harbor. [9] [20]

After the end of the American Civil War, Barton discovered that thousands of letters from distraught relatives to the War Department were going unanswered because the soldiers they were questioning about were buried in unmarked graves. Many of these soldiers were labeled just as "missing". Motivated to do more about the situation, Miss Barton contacted President Lincoln in hopes that she would be allowed to respond officially to these unanswered inquiries. She was given permission, and "The Search for the Missing Men" commenced. [21]

After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437 ½ Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Gallery Place neighborhood. [22] The office's purpose was to find or identify soldiers killed or missing in action. [23] Barton and her assistants wrote 41,855 replies to inquiries and helped locate more than twenty-two thousand missing men. Barton spent the summer of 1865 helping find, identify, and properly bury 13,000 individuals who died in Andersonville prison camp, a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Georgia. [24] She continued this task over the next four years, burying 20,000 more Union soldiers and marking their graves. [21] Congress eventually appropriated $15,000 toward her project. [25]

Barton achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences in 1865–1868. During this time she met Susan B. Anthony and began an association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and became an activist for civil rights. After her countrywide tour she was both mentally and physically exhausted and under doctor's orders to go somewhere that would take her far from her current work. She closed the Missing Soldiers Office in 1868 and traveled to Europe. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia he later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and help her find financial benefactors for the start of the American Red Cross. She was also introduced to Henry Dunant's book A Memory of Solferino, which called for the formation of national societies to provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis.

In the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, in 1870, she assisted the Grand Duchess of Baden in the preparation of military hospitals and gave the Red Cross society much aid during the war. At the joint request of the German authorities and the Strasbourg Comité de Secours, she superintended the supplying of work to the poor of Strasbourg in 1871, after the Siege of Paris, and in 1871 had charge of the public distribution of supplies to the destitute people of Paris. At the close of the war, she received honorable decorations of the Golden Cross of Baden and the Prussian Iron Cross. [26]

When Barton returned to the United States, she inaugurated a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) by the United States government. [27] In 1873, she began work on this project. In 1878, she met with President Rutherford B. Hayes, who expressed the opinion of most Americans at that time which was the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War. Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war such as natural disasters like earthquakes, forest fires, and hurricanes.

Barton became President of the American branch of the society, which held its first official meeting at her I Street apartment in Washington, DC, May 21, 1881. The first local society was founded August 22, 1881 in Dansville, Livingston County, New York, where she maintained a country home. [28] [29]

The society's role changed with the advent of the Spanish–American War during which it aided refugees and prisoners of the civil war. Once the Spanish–American War was over the grateful people of Santiago built a statue in honor of Barton in the town square, which still stands there today. In the United States, Barton was praised in numerous newspapers and reported about Red Cross operations in person. [30]

Domestically in 1884 she helped in the floods on the Ohio river, provided Texas with food and supplies during the famine of 1887 and took workers to Illinois in 1888 after a tornado and that same year to Florida for the yellow fever epidemic. [31] Within days after the Johnstown Flood in 1889, she led her delegation of 50 doctors and nurses in response. [31] In 1897, responding to the humanitarian crisis in the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the Hamidian massacres, Barton sailed to Constantinople and after long negotiations with Abdul Hamid II, opened the first American International Red Cross headquarters in the heart of Turkey. Barton herself traveled along with five other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896, providing relief and humanitarian aid. Barton also worked in hospitals in Cuba in 1898 at the age of seventy-seven. [32] Barton's last field operation as President of the American Red Cross was helping victims of the Galveston hurricane in 1900. The operation established an orphanage for children.

As criticism arose of her mixing professional and personal resources, Barton was forced to resign as president of the American Red Cross in 1904, at the age of 83 because of her egocentric leadership style fitting poorly into the formal structure of an organizational charity. [9] She had been forced out of office by a new generation of all-male scientific experts who reflected the realistic efficiency of the Progressive Era rather than her idealistic humanitarianism. [33] In memory of the courageous women of the civil war, the Red Cross Headquarters was founded. During the dedication, not one person said a word. This was done in order to honor the women and their services. [34] After resigning, Barton founded the National First Aid Society.

She continued to live in her Glen Echo, Maryland home which also served as the Red Cross Headquarters upon her arrival to the house in 1897. Barton published her autobiography in 1908, titled The Story of My Childhood. [20] On April 12, 1912, she died in her home at the age of 90. The cause of death was pneumonia.

Although not formally a member of the Universalist Church of America, [35] in a 1905 letter to the widow of Carl Norman Thrasher, she identified herself with her parents' church as a "Universalist". [36]

My dear friend and sister:

Your belief that I am a Universalist is as correct as your greater belief that you are one yourself, a belief in which all who are privileged to possess it rejoice. In my case, it was a great gift, like St. Paul, I "was born free", and saved the pain of reaching it through years of struggle and doubt.

My father was a leader in the building of the church in which Hosea Ballow preached his first dedication sermon. Your historic records will show that the old Huguenot town of Oxford, Mass. erected one of, if not the first Universalist Church in America. In this town I was born in this church I was reared. In all its reconstructions and remodelings I have taken a part, and I look anxiously for a time in the near future when the busy world will let me once more become a living part of its people, praising God for the advance in the liberal faith of the religions of the world today, so largely due to the teachings of this belief.

Give, I pray you, dear sister, my warmest congratulations to the members of your society. My best wishes for the success of your annual meeting, and accept my thanks most sincerely for having written me.

Fraternally yours, (Signed) Clara Barton.

While she was not an active member of her parents' church, Barton wrote about how well known her family was in her hometown and how many relationships her father formed with others in their town through their church and religion. [6]

In 1975, the Clara Barton National Historic Site, located at 5801 Oxford Road, Glen Echo, Maryland, was established as a unit of the National Park Service at Barton's home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. As the first National Historic Site dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross, since the home also served as an early headquarters of the organization. The North Oxford, Massachusetts, house in which she was born is now also a museum.

The National Park Service has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlors, and Barton's bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Barton lived and worked. Guides lead tourists through the three levels, emphasizing Barton's use of her unusual home. In 2018 the site was indefinitely closed due to repairs. [37]

In 1869, Barton closed the Missing Soldiers Office and headed to Europe. [38] The third floor of her old boardinghouse was boarded up in 1913, and the site forgotten. The site was "lost" in part because Washington, DC realigned its addressing system in the 1870s. The boardinghouse became 437 ½ Seventh Street Northwest (formerly 488-1/2 Seventh Street West).

In 1997, General Services Administration carpenter Richard Lyons was hired to check out the building for its demolition. He found a treasure trove of Barton items in the attic, including signs, clothing, Civil War soldier's socks, an army tent, Civil War-era newspapers, and many documents relating to the Office of Missing Soldiers. [39] This discovery led to the NPS saving the building from demolition. It took years, however, for the site to be restored. [40] The Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office Museum, run by the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, opened in 2015. [41] [42]

  • Numbering All the Bones by Ann Rinaldi features Barton and Andersonville Prison, a Civil War prison with terrible conditions.
  • Angel of Mercy (MGM, 1939) is a biographical short film directed by Edward L. Cahn, starring Sara Haden as Barton and Ann Rutherford as a woman whose brother's death in a Civil War battle inspires her to join Barton in her work. [43]
  • In the NBC TV series Voyagers! (1982–1983), Phineas Bogg and Jeffrey Jones travel through time to make sure history proceeds correctly. In the episode "The Travels of Marco . and Friends", season 1, episode 9, original airdate December 3, 1982, Phineas and Jeffrey rescue Barton (Patricia Donahue) from a burning wagon, but she is on the verge of succumbing to smoke inhalation. Jeffrey (a young boy from 1982) applies mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (a technique unknown in Barton's time) and saves her life, thus enabling her to go on to found the American Red Cross. plays Barton in an episode of Drunk History which features a summary of Barton's accomplishments during and after the Civil War as narrated by Amber Ruffin.

Schools Edit

  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Levittown, Pennsylvania
  • Barton Hall at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Elementary on Del Amo Boulevard in Long Beach, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Alton, Illinois
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Redmond, Washington
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Anaheim, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in The Bronx
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Cherry Hill, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Chicago
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Corona, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in San Diego (now San Diego Cooperative Charter School)
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Rochester NY [44]
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania
  • Clara Barton Junior High School in Royal Oak, Michigan for Health Professions in Brooklyn
  • Clara Barton House, a residence hall at Towson University, Towson, Maryland
  • Clara Barton Open School in Minneapolis
  • Clara Barton School, in Cabin John, Maryland, now the Clara Barton Community Center
  • Clara Barton School in Bordentown, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton School in Fargo, North Dakota in Philadelphia
  • Barton Academy in Mobile, Alabama

Streets Edit

  • Clara Barton Road in Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Lane in Galveston, Texas
  • Barton Boulevard in Rockledge, Florida
  • Clara Barton Drive in Albany, New York
  • Clara Barton Drive in Fairfax Station, Virginia in Maryland
  • Clara Barton Street in Dansville, NY
  • Clara Barton Boulevard in Garland, TX
  • Clara Barton Circle in Sylacauga, AL
  • Clara Bartonstraat in Amsterdam

Other Edit

    , a crater on Venus , North Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Barton House in Towson University
  • Barton Towers, in Royal Oak, Michigan, on the former site of Clara Barton Junior High School
  • Barton's Crossing, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a homeless shelter [45]
  • Clara Barton, a Norwegian Air Boeing 737-8MAX (part of Norwegian's "Tailfin Heroes" series) , an unincorporated community located within Edison Township
  • Clara Barton Auditorium, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, Virginia
  • Clara Barton Community Center, Cabin John, Maryland
  • Clara Barton District, a regional association of Unitarian Universalist Association member congregations
  • Clara Barton First Aid Squad, Edison, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Home and Gardens, Johnstown, PA
  • Clara Barton Hospital and Clinics, Hoisington, Kansas
  • Clara Barton Memorial Forest in Lake Clear, New York, planted in 1925
  • Clara Barton Post Office Building, at 14 Walnut Street in Bordentown, New Jersey [46]
  • Clara Barton Service Area, on the New Jersey Turnpike in Oldmans Township, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Shelter, Stony Brook State Park, Dansville, NY
  • Clara Barton Tree, a giant sequoia tree in the Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park[47]
  • Heritage of Clara Barton, Edison, NJ, an Assisted Living Community
  • Lake Barton in Burke, Virginia
  • The House of Clara Barton at The King's College (New York City)[48]

A stamp with a portrait of Barton and an image of the American Red Cross symbol was issued in 1948. [49]

Barton was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. [3]

Barton was featured in 1995 in a set of stamps commemorating the Civil War. [50] [51]

In 2019, Barton was announced as one of the members of the inaugural class of the Government Executive magazine's Government Hall of Fame. [52]

Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, of the National Museum of American History are focused on the United States at war. The Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance was at one point the signature artifact there but is no longer on display.


Barton's father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman. Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton, a homemaker.

When three years old, Clara was sent to school with her brother Stephen where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts this is the only known friend Clara Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidness. Her parents tried to help cure her of this shyness by sending her to Col. Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a disaster. Clara became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was immediately removed from the school and brought back home to regain her health.

Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member, as the nephew of Captain Stephen Barton had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired.Clara was persistent in offering her assistance, for which the painter was very grateful. After the work was done, Clara felt at a loss because she had nothing else to do to help and not feel like a burden to her family. She began to play with her male cousins, and to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such tasks as horseback riding. It was not until after she had injured herself that Clara's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Clara's mother wanted her to become acquainted with her feminine side. She invited one of Clara's female cousins over to help develop her femininity. Upon learning from her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well.

She was just ten when she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe injury.She learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him. (This was a regular treatment during this time.) She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. Her brother made a full recovery.

Clara Barton became an educator in 1838 for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher and knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys, since as a child she enjoyed her male cousins' and brothers' company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her classroom since they respected her. In 1850, Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. Following these studies, Barton opened a free school in Bordentown, New Jersey, the first free school to be opened in the state. The attendance under her leadership grew to 603, but instead of hiring Barton to head the school, the board hired a man. Frustrated, in 1855 she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office,and she met John Brown and they began working togetherthis was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man's salary. Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan,during some reunions , she accompanied John Brown because he separated from his wife,in a beautiful morning, they met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau,after the execution of John Brown , she was missing for a few weeks , but ended up having to assume all responsibility he had.After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service. She was probably the first woman to hold a government job in the US.

Before her father died, Clara Barton was able to talk to him about the war effort. Her father convinced her that it was her duty as a Christian to help the soldiers. In the April following his death, Barton returned to Washington to gather medical supplies. Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. In the August of 1862, Barton finally gained permission from Quartermaster Daniel Rucker to work on the front lines. She gained support from other people who believed in her cause. These people became her patrons, her most supportive being Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts.

She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles, including Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.


In 1864 she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She is known as the "Angel of the Battlefield."

After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437 Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Gallery Place neighborhood. The office's purpose was to find or identify soldiers killed or missing in action.Barton and her assistants wrote 41,855 replies to inquiries and helped locate more than twenty-one thousand missing men. She traveled to the Andersonville prison camp in Georgia to help identify the dead and missing and install grave markers for thirteen thousand graves, and Congress eventually appropriated $15,000 toward her project.

Barton then achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country, which lasted well over a year, about her war experiences. After her country wide tour she was both mentally and physically exhausted and under doctor's orders to go somewhere that would take her far from her current work. She closed the Missing Soldiers Office in 1868 and traveled to Europe. She met Susan B. Anthony and began a long association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also met Frederick Douglass and became an activist for civil rights. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia who later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and even help her find financial beneficiaries for the start of the American Red Cross. She was also introduced to Henry Dunant's book A Memory of Solferino, which called for the formation of national societies to provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis.


Clara Barton collided with the first official bloodshed of the Civil War

The American Civil War officially started on April 12, 1861, with the attack on Fort Sumter. A week later, the 6th Massachusetts Infantry was attacked in Baltimore while traveling through the city to Washington, D.C. Four soldiers were killed, 36 were wounded, and dozens of civilians died.

When the beleaguered regiment arrived in D.C., the unfinished Capitol Building was turned into a makeshift hospital to accommodate them. Clara Barton heard about the riot and the wounded men: according to the Washington Post, they included former students and people she'd grown up with. She also heard the people treating them had very few supplies. Not easily daunted, Barton collected essentials, including medical supplies, clothes, bedding, and food, and traveled to the Capitol. Given that there was no official training for nurses at the time, she had to learn on the job, as well as drawing on her experience caring for her brother David.

In addition to bringing the supplies, she recruited members of the public to send more, which she collected at her house. But possibly the most significant contribution she made to those on the wards was that she took the time to sit with them, talking and reading to them, praying with them, and helping them write letters home.


History

C larissa Harlowe “Clara” Barton was born in a small Oxford farmhouse on Christmas day 1821. She was raised in the Universalist tradition and attended the Oxford Universalist Church founded by the Rev. Hosea Ballou. A timid, bashful child, Clara grew into a courageous, compassionate leader known the world over for her work as a Civil War battlefield nurse and founder of the American National Red Cross – yet ironically she did not recognize her own selfless bravery. Two hundred years after her birth, the incredible stories of this great humanitarian continue to draw people to Clara Barton’s birthplace to learn about her life of boundless mercy and commitment.

Capt. Stephen Barton purchased the land in 1818 and built the home and a horse farm the family sold the Oxford property in 1836. Several individuals owned the land until in 1921 the Women’s National Missionary Association of the Universalist Church purchased the home and surrounding acreage with help and support from the Legion of Loyal Women, the Clara Barton Memorial Association, and members of the Barton extended family. Shortly after, they opened the Clara Barton Birthplace Museum filled with period artifacts to tell their heroine’s story.

“I think it usually occurs in small communities that there is one family, or one house, to which all strangers or new comers naturally gravitate. Nothing was plainer than that ours was that house…” – Clara Barton (1821-1912), Founder of the American Red Cross

Concurrently they began a fresh air camp for inner-city youth on the surrounding property, as a living memorial to Clara Barton’s philosophy of helping others. Then, during the winter of 1932, they read a newspaper article by fellow Oxford native Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, a leading physician in diabetes treatment, in which he asked people to create “islands of safety” for children living with diabetes where they could learn to develop healthy life skills, use the then-new treatment, insulin, and build a support network of others with the same disease. That summer the Universalist women began the first camp program in the U.S. for girls with diabetes, in the spirit of their heroine teaching those in need how to help themselves, much as Clara’s American National Red Cross offered people a hand up, not a “handout.”

The health education programs answered a pressing need and grew as word of them spread. Seven campers came to North Oxford in 1932 by 1959 that number swelled to almost 400. In 1962 the Universalist Church and the Unitarian Church merged to form the present Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) with its many affiliated organizations, including the former WNMA. A separate independent corporation was created two decades later to administer the increasingly complex health education programs offered on the site as well as the museum – The Barton Center for Diabetes Education, Inc.

The Clara Barton Birthplace Museum is owned by The Barton Center for Diabetes Education, Inc.


Clara Barton Broke Barriers for Nineteenth Century Women

Most people, if they have heard of Clara Barton, know she was a nurse during the Civil War and/or she founded the American Red Cross. People often forget she was so much more than that. In this series of posts we will highlight what people should know about Barton from her extensive nursing career, to her time as an educator, and as an international relief organizer – just to name a few things. The goal is for these posts is to demonstrate just how amazing and multifaceted Clara Barton was in a way modern history textbooks just don’t capture.

For many reasons, Clara Barton is considered a trailblazing activist for women’s rights and by both her contemporaries and modern people worldwide. She was hired as a clerk at the Patent Office in 1854, at the same rate of pay as the men. Barton’s job at the patent office made her one of the very first women to be employed by the federal government, and the equal pay with men was unheard of at the time. While her position was subject to the vagaries of politics, and she encountered harassment from her male coworkers, she persevered and worked at the Patent Office until 1865.

The US Patent Office c 1846 where Clara Barton worked.

Barton’s work as a Civil War nurse was somewhat atypical as well. At the time it was very unusual for women to be caring for strange men in intimate situations that hospitals demanded. Clara Barton took things a step further than most women by going directly to the battlefields to help wounded soldiers, something only a few women were able to do.

Barton was keenly aware what she was doing was uncommon. Looking back with years of hindsight, she commented that, not only were her battlefield nursing duties challenging for her, but they would be for any man. “When our armies fought at Cedar Mountain, I broke the shackles and went into the field. Five days and nights with three hours’ sleep—a narrow escape from capture—and some days of getting the wounded into hospitals at Washington…And if you chance to feel that the positions I occupied were rough and unseemly for a woman—I can only reply that they were rough and unseemly for men.” Ultimately, that was how Barton thought of herself – the equal of any man.

Barton was also an early lobbyist, tirelessly pushing influential politicians to adopt the Treaty of Geneva and establish the American Red Cross. She pursued these causes throughout the 1870s until she was finally successful in 1882. She was one of three delegates from the United States sent to the Third International Red Cross Conference in Geneva in 1884—and the only female delegate present. What is known as the “American Amendment,” which broadened the scope of the work of the Red Cross to include natural disasters, was passed at the conference, mainly due to success of Barton’s disaster relief work in America and her advocacy of the amendment.

The rights of women were important to Barton, specifically “the right [of a woman] to her own property, her own children, her own home, her just individual claim before the law, to her freedom of action, to her personal liberty” as she put it. She supported her friends Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances D. Gage, and other suffragists in their cause to win the right to vote for American women.

Clara Barton, 1904. Even in her later years, Barton was an advocate for women’s rights.

Barton very publically spoke in favor of equal rights for women. For example, in 1882 Barton delivered a lecture extoling the role Anthony, Stanton, and others played in allowing her to be such a public figure during the Civil War. “You glorify the women who made their way to the front to reach you in your misery, and nurse you back to life. You called us angels. Who opened the way for women to go and make it possible? … For every woman’s hand that ever cooled your fevered brows, staunched your bleeding wounds, gave food to your famished bodies, or water to your parching lips, and called back life to your perishing bodies, you should bless God for Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances D. Gage and their followers.”

Barton’s accomplishments can perhaps best be summed up in a letter she wrote to a friend after the war. “The door that nobody else will go in at, seems always to swing open widely for me.”

This is the second in a series of posts about the many facets of Clara Barton’s career. Click below to be directed to the others.

Visit Us

*Missing Soldiers Office appointments will begin on February 15, 2021*

Wednesday – Friday: By Appointment
Opens at 11:00 AM
Last Admission at 4:30 PM

The Missing Soldiers Office will be closed for reservations from May 7 – 23, 2021.

The Museum will be open for reserved tours by appointment only at this time. Click here to reserve a time, or click here for more information on our policies.

PHONE:
(202) 824-0613

LOCATION:
437 7th Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20004
Looking for our Mailing Address?

The preserved rooms are accessible by both stairs and elevator.


3 Major Accomplishments of Clara Barton

When you look back on the accomplishments of people throughout history, some have made more of an impact than others. There have even been those that have overcome more obstacles to do so. Clara Barton was a woman living during a period of time when the rights of women were suppressed to a degree, but this did not stop her from making big contributions to society. It is time that you learned about the major accomplishments of Burton. Here are some of the major accomplishments of Clara Burton:

1. Civil War Contribution

When the Civil War took place in 1861, Burton was working in Washington DC at the time. There was an infantry that was attacked in the area and Burton did not waste any time providing aid. She brought supplies from her home to take care of those that were injured. This was something that cam naturally to her and she quickly determined that providing aid to others was her calling. Helping people that were in need gave her a sense of fulfillment and allowed Burton to feel that she was needed in some way. Providing aid during the civil war was just the beginning of her long career.

2. Red Cross

The Red Cross is still in existence today and provides medical supplies and care to those that are most in need. When a disaster strikes, it is the Red Cross that helps provide the aid that is given. Clara Barton’s biggest accomplishment is creating and establishing the Red Cross. When she started the Red Cross is was not the same organization that it is today, but she was the one that built it up to what it has become over the years. She became the president of the Red Cross when it was formed and was the person that helped to establish local chapters of the red Cross all over the country. This helps to provide more aid in the event of disaster.

3. Speaking on Aid

When Barton was growing up she was extremely shy, but she was able to overcome this shyness as time went along. She spent a good portion of her life traveling and speaking on the topic of aid and how organizations can work together to provide the aid that is required in the event of a disaster. She dedicated her life to those that were in need and those that needed a helping hand along the way.


Clara Barton ( Founder Of American Red Cross)

Biography Of Clara Barton:
Profession: Nurse
Birthdates: December 25, 1821
Birth Place: North Oxford, Massachusetts
Died date: April 12, 1912
Died Place: Glen Echo, Maryland
Best acquainted: Founder of the American Red Cross

Summary:
Clara Barton’s birthplace
Clara Barton’s childhood
The first step in the human paradigm
When she is a Teacher and a Establisher
Memorable actions were taken during the Civil War
“Angel of the Battlefield”
Brightest impressions of her work
Founder at American Red Cross
Clara resigns from the American Red Cross

Clara Barton’s Birthplace:
Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts on December 25, 1821, on a beautiful historic day (Christmas). Her childhood did not go very well. She was the youngest of four siblings. Even her mother was never sincere to her. Because the number of parents was far greater than the number of her siblings.

Clara Barton’s Childhood:
In addition to her studies at school, she gained a reputation for acquiring various skills at work. But sadly no one treated her well at school. When Clara was at home, she almost listened intently to the war stories in her father’s mouth, which was her favorite.

The First Step In The Human Paradigm:
When Clara was only eleven, her older brother, David, fell violently from the roof of a barn and took on almost the full responsibility of her service. And for the next two years, Clara became a nurse in her full service while her brother was in bed. Which is an example of human experience in later life, including gaining experience.

When She was A Teacher And A Establisher:
Clara Barton created an organization called The American Red Cross to provide services to the helpless, destitute, poor, and needy people. Today, the organization continues to assist needy people. David relied on her brothers for help after she was involved in an accident, but eventually, her sister Clara brought her back. As a teenager, she received an outlet for her humanitarian work, and at the age of 15, she was hired as a teacher and later started a free public school in New Jersey on her initiative.

Memorable Actions Were Taken During The Civil War:
Clara Barton helped the Army during the Civil War in many ways. At an early stage, she concentrated on collecting supplies and after being able to collect them she distributed them to the Union Army. Burton works as a nurse on her initiative for the welfare of humanity.

Angel Of The Battlefield :
The first battle she fought in Fredericksburg, Virginia, lasted 1862 years. She served the wounded soldiers in Antioch with great care and responsibility. She received a well-known reputation for this service, for which she was awarded the “Angel of the Battlefield” . President Lincoln put her in charge of locating missing men from the union army and she found thousands.

Brightest Impressions Of Her Work:
One of the brightest impressions of her work can be seen when she worked in 1865 to find the missing soldiers and reunite them with their families. After becoming a lecturer, she used to have a large crowd to listen to the narration of the experience of war.

Getting supplies to the troops was not easy. But Clara Barton tried as hard as she could to deliver. She was terrified and wondered how the soldiers would treat her. Different names were hanging next to the camp built for women, the names were not beautiful. Claire Cedar continued her service at the camp, including troop searches, in the context of permission to supply troops to a field hospital set up outside the battlefield. She has been working continuously for as long as possible. Then she returned home tired.

During the war, Clara established a tradition:
Collect supplies,
Visit field hospitals (and then the battlefields themselves),
Work hard
Then break down,
Get tired,
Get sick
And be frustrated at different times. Running.

Barton Is The Founder Of The American Red Cross:
The Franco-Prussian War lasted from 1870 to 1871, during which time Clara Barton was associated with a relief organization called the International Red Cross, collecting, distributing, and volunteering for relief, and during this time she was on a tour of Europe. Back in the United States, she vigorously pursued and advocated for the establishment of the American Red Cross Society. As a result, the American Red Cross Society was founded in 1881.

Clara Barton was later appointed president for the first time and retained his place of honor by honestly behaving humanely. During her tenure as leader, John Stone was instrumental in the relief and relief work for the people affected by the Floods of 1889 and the Galveston Floods of 1900.

Clara Resigns From The American Red Cross:
Clara Barton resigned from the American Red Cross in 1904 to attend lectures, after a time of honorable service to the public. The reason was financial mismanagement and internal power struggles. She had a reputation as an authoritarian leader, she never took any money for work. She never raised funds to raise her funds. She played an active role in lectures after leaving the Red Cross. She also authored a book, The Story of “My Childhood” which was published in 1907. Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland.


Clara Barton ( Founder Of American Red Cross)

Biography Of Clara Barton:
Profession: Nurse
Birthdates: December 25, 1821
Birth Place: North Oxford, Massachusetts
Died date: April 12, 1912
Died Place: Glen Echo, Maryland
Best acquainted: Founder of the American Red Cross

Summary:
Clara Barton’s birthplace
Clara Barton’s childhood
The first step in the human paradigm
When she is a Teacher and a Establisher
Memorable actions were taken during the Civil War
“Angel of the Battlefield”
Brightest impressions of her work
Founder at American Red Cross
Clara resigns from the American Red Cross

Clara Barton’s Birthplace:
Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts on December 25, 1821, on a beautiful historic day (Christmas). Her childhood did not go very well. She was the youngest of four siblings. Even her mother was never sincere to her. Because the number of parents was far greater than the number of her siblings.

Clara Barton’s Childhood:
In addition to her studies at school, she gained a reputation for acquiring various skills at work. But sadly no one treated her well at school. When Clara was at home, she almost listened intently to the war stories in her father’s mouth, which was her favorite.

The First Step In The Human Paradigm:
When Clara was only eleven, her older brother, David, fell violently from the roof of a barn and took on almost the full responsibility of her service. And for the next two years, Clara became a nurse in her full service while her brother was in bed. Which is an example of human experience in later life, including gaining experience.

When She was A Teacher And A Establisher:
Clara Barton created an organization called The American Red Cross to provide services to the helpless, destitute, poor, and needy people. Today, the organization continues to assist needy people. David relied on her brothers for help after she was involved in an accident, but eventually, her sister Clara brought her back. As a teenager, she received an outlet for her humanitarian work, and at the age of 15, she was hired as a teacher and later started a free public school in New Jersey on her initiative.

Memorable Actions Were Taken During The Civil War:
Clara Barton helped the Army during the Civil War in many ways. At an early stage, she concentrated on collecting supplies and after being able to collect them she distributed them to the Union Army. Burton works as a nurse on her initiative for the welfare of humanity.

Angel Of The Battlefield :
The first battle she fought in Fredericksburg, Virginia, lasted 1862 years. She served the wounded soldiers in Antioch with great care and responsibility. She received a well-known reputation for this service, for which she was awarded the “Angel of the Battlefield” . President Lincoln put her in charge of locating missing men from the union army and she found thousands.

Brightest Impressions Of Her Work:
One of the brightest impressions of her work can be seen when she worked in 1865 to find the missing soldiers and reunite them with their families. After becoming a lecturer, she used to have a large crowd to listen to the narration of the experience of war.

Getting supplies to the troops was not easy. But Clara Barton tried as hard as she could to deliver. She was terrified and wondered how the soldiers would treat her. Different names were hanging next to the camp built for women, the names were not beautiful. Claire Cedar continued her service at the camp, including troop searches, in the context of permission to supply troops to a field hospital set up outside the battlefield. She has been working continuously for as long as possible. Then she returned home tired.

During the war, Clara established a tradition:
Collect supplies,
Visit field hospitals (and then the battlefields themselves),
Work hard
Then break down,
Get tired,
Get sick
And be frustrated at different times. Running.

Barton Is The Founder Of The American Red Cross:
The Franco-Prussian War lasted from 1870 to 1871, during which time Clara Barton was associated with a relief organization called the International Red Cross, collecting, distributing, and volunteering for relief, and during this time she was on a tour of Europe. Back in the United States, she vigorously pursued and advocated for the establishment of the American Red Cross Society. As a result, the American Red Cross Society was founded in 1881.

Clara Barton was later appointed president for the first time and retained his place of honor by honestly behaving humanely. During her tenure as leader, John Stone was instrumental in the relief and relief work for the people affected by the Floods of 1889 and the Galveston Floods of 1900.

Clara Resigns From The American Red Cross:
Clara Barton resigned from the American Red Cross in 1904 to attend lectures, after a time of honorable service to the public. The reason was financial mismanagement and internal power struggles. She had a reputation as an authoritarian leader, she never took any money for work. She never raised funds to raise her funds. She played an active role in lectures after leaving the Red Cross. She also authored a book, The Story of “My Childhood” which was published in 1907. Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland.


Watch the video: History of Clara Barton